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Author 熊琬
Source 華岡佛學學報=Hwakang Buddhist Journal
Pages261 - 285
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword朱熹; 宋代理學; 佛教與儒家=儒佛會通=Buddhism and Confucianism
Abstract朱子之學體大思精,其思想遠紹孔孟,近綜周張二程,旁攬二氏 (佛道),而卓成一家,可謂集理學之大成. 朱子自謂早年嘗留心于佛,「出入于佛老者十餘年」,且嘗「師其人,尊其道,求之亦切至矣.」其師友輩鮮不沾被于佛,其熏習漸染者,不可謂不深矣. 朱子理學與佛學之關係,就心性問題上論,可分下列諸端.

一. 太極說與佛學:
朱子之解太極曰:「天地中有一太極,萬物中各有一太極.」「人人有一太極,物物有一太極.」其說蓋有取于佛氏「一即一切,一切即一」之旨. 其論太極,即逕引釋氏曰:「一月普現一切水,一切水月一月攝.」 (案:語出永嘉證道歌) 又其解「通書」「理性命」論太極又取喻云:「如月在天,只一而已,及散在江湖,則隨處而見.」 -- 此「月映萬川」之說也. 由此二例足證朱子論太極當有所自來矣.

二. 理氣說與佛學:
朱子理氣說源自伊川,所謂「理」者本體,「氣」者現象. 以謂「天下未有無理之氣,亦未有無氣之理」. 其理氣之關係與華嚴「理事無礙」說相合. 又自華嚴「六相」說觀之,「合天地萬物而言,只是個理.」 -- 「總相」義也. 「及在人則各自有個理」. 「別相」義也. 同者,其理; 異者,其氣. -- 同」「異」二相也. 「有理便有氣流行發育萬物.」 -- 「成相」義也. 「若氣不結聚時,理亦無所附麗.」 -- 「壞相」義也. 三. 道器說與佛學:道者形而上 (本體). 器者形而下 (現象),道即理,器即氣. 明乎理氣與佛學,即明乎道器與佛學之關係矣. 四. 氣質說與佛學:張程首揭「氣質」之說,至朱子始大加闡揚之. 朱子嘗云:「伊川言氣質之性,正猶佛書所謂『水中鹽味,色裏膠清』」 (案 (此二句出于傅大士心王銘) 水者,天命之性,鹽者,氣質之性也. 朱子解氣質說云:「理在氣中,如明珠在水裏.」「稟氣之清,如寶珠在清水中; 稟氣之濁,如珠在濁水中.」其說與佛氏「如來藏」說蓋相通. (案:所謂「如來藏」者,謂真如在煩惱中) 至於,二者所異,「如來藏說」出于「心」,而「氣質說」出于「天」 (自然). 而「心」與「天」二字,實儒佛根本差異所在也.

Chu-tze's philosophy is vast and profound, traceable to Confucius and Mencius whose tradition had been carried on to his immediate predecessors. He represented the culmination of Neoconfucianism. But he said he spent more than ten years studying Buddhism and Taoism earnestly in his youth, having great respect for the master and the ways of the two religions. Furthermore,almost all his preceptors and friends had a dip in Buddhism. Therefore,it is certain that Chu-tze was greatly influenced by this religion. This paper is an attempt to analyze the relationship between his Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in terms of his theories about Mind and Nature. The theory of `taichi` (the primordial existence),the theory of li and ch'i (principle and phenomenon),and so on,are all closely connected to the corresponding ideals in Buddhism. Many sources have been quoted as evidence of the connection.
Table of contents一、太極說與佛學 265
二、理氣說與佛學 270
三、道器說與佛學 275
四、氣質說與佛學 277
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.08.17

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