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寺院廚房裡的姊妹情 -- 戰後台灣佛教婦女的性別意識與修行=Jiemeiqing in the Monastic Kitchen in Post-War Taiwan:Gender Identity and Community Solidarity among Buddhist Women
Author 李玉珍=Li, Yu-chen
Source 中央研究院民族學研究所集刊=Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology Academia Sinica
Pages97 - 128
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword台灣佛教; Taiwanese Buddhism; 比丘尼; Bhiksuni; 煮食; Cooking; 性別與空間; Gender and Space
Abstract台灣佛教界常常視供養和分享食物為女性化宗教行為,且佛教婦女也常常以煮食來表現其虔誠. 譬如,以神蹟式治病而著名的無名比丘尼,即行禁食而施大悲咒水.另外,水果和尚廣欽和尚則直稱廚房是女性修行的場域.這修都是宗教實踐在日常行為中儀式化和性別化的例子,值得研究.佛教婦女投注煮食雖和傳統的性別分工符合但台灣
不同於傳統中國叢林制度的生活模式則賦予此寺院宗教實踐不同的影響. 藉煮食,台灣比丘尼不僅建立其經濟獨立的自主性,並且因此形成她們有別男性同儕的性別認同和團體意識. 雖目前罕有學者注意到此結構性因素,但台灣寺院普遍供應信徒齋食和相對熱絡的信徒網路,已成台灣佛教寺院的重要特徵之一.本文的重點除將女性性別角色形成的過程置於寺院生活和經濟結構中,更重要的世界由女性的生活經驗(比丘尼和優婆夷)來呈現和分析台灣比丘尼如何建構其宗教實踐的意義. 因此,除典籍的分析外,筆者並且在十八個月的田野調查中,走訪了數十座寺院的廚房. 由於一般寺院大多將廚房視為女性的工作領域,筆者(女性)親自參與煮食和作廚房雜物的過程,發現相當豐富的女性間互動和經驗傳承的資料. 這些參與觀察和口訪,對經典平面的記載賦予制度性和歷史性的深度,生動的展現寺院廚房中的姊妹情誼.

A close look at monastic kitchens reveals much about food culture in monastic life. As a traditional female activity, cooking is a means for Taiwanese nuns to gain economic, social,and cultural capital. In addition,cooking shapes the
spatial arrangement and temporal of daily life at a monastery. It is in this institutional scheme that contemporary Taiwanese nuns form their identity. This food culture grounds itself in the gender politics of Buddhist institutions underlying the process of food preparation at monastic kitchens.

This paper focuses on the discipline and community identity of Taiwanese Buddhist nuns, which can be fully illuminated only by using "gender" as a category of historical analysis. Like general social expectations abort gender,nuns are assigned in Taiwanese monastic administration the task of cooking m an alleged feminine practice in the distribution of religious labor. Thus, monastic kitchens constitute a very significant "female sphere" for nuns.

The paper is organized to answer in turn four questions, Firstly,why is food considered a significant component of the monastic life? Secondly,how do Taiwanese nuns formulate their religious experience and community identity through cooking? Thirdly,what is the relationship between the distribution of labor and gender identity in Taiwanese Buddhism? And fourthly,how do contemporary Taiwanese nuns redefine the meaning of cooking through and expended social network?

Table of contents
一. 序曲
二. 研究回顧與理論架構
三. 寺院廚房作為台灣佛教女性修行實踐的場域
1. 中國與台灣的寺院經濟之差別
2. 台灣比丘尼的事業與烹飪
3. 經懺佛教與佛教都市化
四. 台灣寺院廚房裡行動的女人(一):比丘尼
五. 台灣寺院廚房裡行動的女人(二):師姐與老菩薩
六. 結語
Created date2000.07.10
Modified date2010.08.16

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