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Manjusri and the cult of the Celestial Bodhisattvas=文殊師利與神聖菩薩崇拜
Author Harrison, Paul M. (著)=何離巽 (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.13.2
Date2000.05
Pages157 - 193
Publisher中華佛學研究所=Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://www.chibs.edu.tw/publication_tw.php?id=12
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Noten.13.2為第13期卷下‧英文篇
Keyword文殊菩薩=Manjusri; Celestial Bodhisattva; Mahayana; Lokaksema; 文殊師利; 神聖菩薩; 大乘; 支婁迦讖
AbstractWhile it is clear that the bodhisattva ideal lies
at the very heart of Mahayana Buddhist doctrine
and practice,in many respects its historical
development remains obscure. In an attempt to
shed some light on this, the following paper
examines the notion of the "celestial bodhisattva."
Although this notion enjoys a wide currency in
contemporary Buddhist scholarship,it is appropriate
to ask whether it is at all useful,or indeed
meaningful,and whether it corresponds to any
indigenous Buddhist category. Focusing on the first
Mahayana sutras translated into Chinese by the
Indo-Scythian Lokaksema in the late 2nd century
C.E.,the paper explores the details of their
portrayal of Manjusri,who may be regarded as a
paradigmatic case of a so-called celestial
bodhisattva. It turns out that in these texts
Manjusri plays a very important part,while
Avalokitesvara is a comparative non-entity.
Using Manjusri as a test case,the paper concludes
that the concept of the "celestial bodhisattva" is
not a useful one,and has no clear indigenous
referent. It also offers some general hypotheses
about the early history of the bodhisattva ideal,
and about the cult of the great bodhisattvas,
which appears on the basis of the evidence reviewed
here to have been a later and secondary development.

菩薩理想很顯然地是大乘佛教教理與修行的核心,但它
的歷史發展在許多方面仍然晦澀不明. 為嘗試注入些許
光明,本文試著檢視「神聖菩薩」(celestial bodhisattva)
的概念. 雖這個用語在當代佛教學術界似乎頗為流行,但
是到底它有效嗎? 或真的有意義嗎? 它能與佛教固有的分
類相對應嗎? 審視在西元二世紀末由大月氏的支婁迦讖
(Lokaksema)最早翻譯成中文的大乘經,深入探究其中描
畫文殊師利的細節,而祂可說是所謂「神聖菩薩」的典型
範例. 研究結果,證明在這些經典中,文殊師利扮演了一
個非常重要的角色,而觀世音則相對地並不存在. 以文殊
師利為例,本文結論認為「神聖菩薩」不是個有效的觀
念,且也沒一個明確的傳統對用語. 本文也針對菩
薩理想的早期歷史與大菩薩崇拜做了一些推論,依本文資
料證明,大菩薩崇拜是屬於稍後及第二階段的發展.
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1427
Created date2000.07.22
Modified date2017.06.20



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