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圓融與還原--晚明佛教復興的思想主題及其特質=Synthesis and Reduction:The Topics and Characteristics of Buddhism Renewal in Late Ming Dynasty
Author 陳永革
Source 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
Pages71 - 113
Publisher Url
Location南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
KeywordLate Ming Buddhism; Buddhist Synthesis; Buddhist Reduction; Buddhist Renewal; Buddhistic Secularism; 晚明佛教; 佛教圓融; 佛教還原; 佛教復興; 佛教世俗化
Abstract本文認為,晚明時期 (1967-1644) 佛教叢林繼承中國化佛教本身所固有的圓融思想,呈現出多元分化,多頭並進的現實情形,儒禪淨合流,教禪互通,顯密並舉,性相融會,佛儒對話,佛道溝通等等. 而晚明時期社會轉型時代所表現出來的思想變遷與觀念變更,也使晚明佛教叢林的圓融思想表現出深刻的現實意蘊,以其對其所面對的現實處境作出種種思想回應. 面對中印兩大佛教傳統,晚明佛教叢林則又面臨著如何結合叢林現狀與佛教傳統的現實課題,促使明末叢林轉為關注佛教傳統,從而表現出向佛教傳統回歸的歷史還原傾向. 晚明佛教還原思想構成明末佛教復興的方向選擇. 佛教圓融與佛教還原兩大相資為用,互補關聯的思想取向,成晚明佛教復興的兩大思想主題,並最終落歸於改革叢林的現實理念,從而使明末佛教叢林呈現復興景象. 訴諸晚明佛教復興與叢林改革的歷史實存,晚明佛教復興思潮具體表現為如下四方面的思想特質,即多元分化,多頭並進的紛雜性,基於現實立場的圓融性,回歸佛教傳統的歷史還原性,及歷史還原與現實圓融相結合的改革性. 正是上述思想特質使晚明佛教叢林呈現出復興景象,而當今學界所稱之 "萬曆佛教 (1573-1620)" 則具體標明了晚明佛教的復興情形.

In this article,the author tries to forward a suggestion that in Late Ming Dynasty (1567-1644) the Buddhism in China has succeeded to a synthetic spirit which is inherited in the Chinese Buddhism tradition that makes it demonstrate a special situation of synthesis such as the confluence of Zen Buddhism and Pure-land,the interaction between Buddhist theory and its practice,the connection of exotic and esoteric schools, the dialogue between Buddhism and Neo-confucianism,and even the communication between Buddhism and Taoism. Facing a variety of social trends of thought,the Buddhism has tried to give its own response in thought to the reality of Late Ming Dynasty. However,confronted with the two Buddhist traditions of India and China, the Buddhists in Late Ming Dynasty had to concern with such a question of How to reunite the social reality and the Buddhist tradition. Thus, the author believes the Buddhism In Late Ming Dynasty generally expresses and evident inclination of historical reduction to the Buddhist tradition. It is this inclination which becomes the basic orientation of the Buddhist renewal movement,and it is the Buddhist synthetic spirit which becomes the basic way of the renaissance. Therefore,the synthesis in Buddhist theories and the historical reduction to the Buddhist tradition are the two significant topics in the renewal of Buddhism in Late Ming Dynasty. Based on their interaction and mutual complement,the idea resulted from them to reform the Sangha in reality has eventually made the appearance of a vision prosperity in the Buddhist reformation.

Resorting to the historical process, the author points out that there are four specific characteristics of thought in the Buddhism Renaissance movement in Late Ming Dynasty; 1) the complexity of multi-polarities in thought trends; 2) the synthetic or associated orientation of ideas based on the reality; 3) the inclination of historical reduction to the Buddhist tradition; 4) the reformation combined with the historical reduction and the synthesis in the Buddhist reality. It is the four characteristics of thought that have prompted the revive of the Buddhist renewal in Late Ming Dynasty. And the vision of prosperity of Buddhism,which is called by scholars as "Buddhism in Wan-li" (萬曆佛教1573-1620),specifically represents the accomplishment of the movement.
Table of contents【壹】 前言 77
【貳】 晚明思潮與佛教思想的多元取向 80
【參】 改革叢林的現實圓融與回歸傳統的歷史還原 92
【肆】 晚明佛教思想的特質與佛教復興 103
【伍】 結語 112

ISSN16099575 (P)
Created date2000.08.14; 2002.06.07
Modified date2017.08.24

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