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Where is the Pure Land? Classical Interpretations and their Contribution to a Contemporary Conception of the Pure Land=淨土在哪裡?古典的詮釋及其對現代淨土觀念的貢獻
Author Tanaka, Kenneth Kenichi
Source 中華國際佛學會議實錄(第3屆):人間淨土與現代社會: = The Record of Chung-Hwa International Conference on Buddhism(3rd): The "Earthly" Pure Land and Contemporary Society
Publisher法鼓文化出版社=Dharma Drum Culture
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Note中英文提要; 中文論文提要:頁133.
中英文提要; 英文論文提要:p.159.
KeywordChing-t'u; Jodo; Gocara; Saha Realm; Amitabha/ayus; Sukhavati; Tanaka, Kenneth K.; 譚那卡; 淨土; 娑婆世界; 以彌陀為中心; 極樂淨土
AbstractThe term "Pure Land" (Ch. ching-t'u or Jpn. jodo) subsumes a broad range of understanding,particularly in terms of its locus. Originally,it appears that the early Sanskrit texts regarded Pure Land not so much as a "place" but as the Bodhisattva action of "purifying the land" (ksetram parisodhayati). This realm of influence (gocara) was perceived to be here in the Saha Realm. In contrast,the traditional schools centered on Buddha Amitabha/ayus saw its Sukhavati Pure Land as a transcendent realm,billions of Buddha lands to the West and to be reached upon one's death. Another view is seen in the Ch'an (Zen) tradition,which regarded the Pure Land as the state of purified mind of the Bodhisattva.

If these are to be seen as various attempts to address the spiritual needs of differing constituents within given historical contexts, then it would be acceptable to speak of a society in the closing years of the 20th century. My paper will attempt to describe these various classical conceptions of Pure Land and to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses for the purpose of formulating a "contemporary" Pure Land. Within this process, I will indirectly be critiquing the concept of "to build This World into a Pure Land," part of the theme for this conference.

對「淨土」一詞的瞭解,尤其是有關它的處所方面,含攝甚廣. 早期的梵文典籍,並不把「淨土」當作「處所」,而是「清淨國土」的菩薩行為. 這個影響力所及的土地,被認為就在娑婆世界的此處. 相反的,以阿彌陀佛為中心的傳統宗派,卻把極樂淨土視為超越的國土,「從是西方十萬億佛土」,要在人死時才能到達. 另一個觀點則見於禪宗,把淨土視為菩薩的清淨心境.

如果我們把這些不同的詮釋,當作是為隨順不同歷史背景下的眾生之需要,那麼就「可以」把淨土用來指二十世紀末的當今美國社會. 本文嘗試描述這些各種傳統的淨土觀念,並評估它們在形成「當代」淨土的觀念上具哪些貢獻和弱點. 在這種過程中,筆者將間接批判本次會議的主題「建立人間淨土」.
Created date2000.12.05
Modified date2016.09.13

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