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A Pure Land Buddhism of Ryohen in the Kamakura Period=鎌倉時代良遍上人的淨土佛教
Author Minowa, Kenryo =蓑輪顕量
Source 中華國際佛學會議實錄(第3屆):人間淨土與現代社會: = The Record of Chung-Hwa International Conference on Buddhism(3rd): The "Earthly" Pure Land and Contemporary Society
Pages212 - 213
Publisher法鼓文化出版社=Dharma Drum Culture
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Note中英文提要; 中文論文提要:頁116.
中英文提要; 英文論文提要:pp.212-213.
KeywordKanjin-kakumu-sho; Gojishobosho; Mappo; Zobo; Ongon-sho; Consciousness-only; Minowa, Kenryo; 蓑輪顯量
AbstractRyohen (1194-1252) was famous as a leader of the Hosso (yogacara) denomination in the Kamakura Period. He was a noteworthy monk who typified the monks of the Nara area at that time and especially those of the Hosso denomination. Among his works, the "Kanjin-kakumu-sho" is said to be a fundamental book for the study of Hosso doctrine. Besides, he believed in Pure Land Buddhism and played an important role in the reformation. As a Nara area monk who believed in the Pure Land Buddhism from the end of the Heian period to the Kamakura period,Eikan (1033-1111) was famous, and later,Ryohen probably followed him. Therefore Ryohen was a remarkable monk who worked in these three fields, Hosso,Risshu and Pure Land Buddhism.

Ryohen's Pure Land Buddhism was influenced by his interpretation of the time. We can see his sincerity in his work,"Gojishobo-sho",in which he sternly criticized the corruption of the monks of Nara. But,according to the copier's note,which is a comment written by the novice Nyusai,he interpreted the era not as the beginning of Mappo but as the end of Zobo,a concept which came from the traditions o the Hosso denomination. Since he desired the reformation of Buddhism,he criticized corruption very sternly. Perhaps this is one reason why he retired from the monk's hierarchical world and became a secluded monk close to the age of 50 although he had studied hard to get a higher position before then. Ceremonial service is very important in understanding the monks' hierarchical world of the Heian and the Kamakura periods. Anyway,most of his works were written after his seclusion.

"Ongon-sho" is one of them and was written in the second year of Kencho (1250). We know that his concept of Pure Land Buddhism was influenced by Hosso (yogacara) School. The doctrine of 'consciousness-only' was most influential in his thought. He concretely affirmed that one should cultivate a mind of compassion through observing defilement,suffering,purity and pleasure. We can count this concrete attitude as one of his characteristics.

It seems that he asserted that the Pure Land was in one's mind because he thought about it in terms of the doctrine of the 'consciousness-only'. He took the position that several other practices were also acceptable as the methods of reaching the Pure Land. We can also count this moderate view as one of his characteristics.

Ryohen emphasized the idea of compassion very much and this is also counted as one of his characteristics. The compassion appears as the practice of benefiting others. This kind of attitude was common in monks of the Risshu denomination in the Kamakura period,especially Kakujo and Eison. Ryohen was also a member of that denomination. We imagine that Ryohen emphasized it because he felt great sympathy with the Risshu denomination and had studied its importance. Eison was famous for practicing compassion and benefiting others. At any rate,Ryohen asserted that one should be born in the Pure Land to benefit others.

Thus, we can find out Ryohen's characteristics in his concrete methods of observation and his stand that one should be born in the Pure Land to benefit others.

良遍上人(1194-1252)以鎌倉時代法相宗的領袖而著名. 他是當時奈良地區僧侶,尤其是法相宗僧侶的典範. 在他的作品中,《觀心覺夢鈔》被認為是研究法相學的基本著作. 此外,他也相信淨土佛教,並且對十三世紀淨土宗的改革貢獻甚大. 在律宗的改革方面,他介於覺盛律師(1193-1249)和叡尊律師(1201-1290)間自平安朝末年至鎌倉朝間的淨土僧人,以永觀論師(1033-1111)最為著名,其後可能就是良遍上人了. 因此,良遍上人士法相宗,淨土宗和律宗三方面的傑出僧人.

他的淨土佛教,受到他的時代觀所影響. 我們可以從他的作品《護持正法章》中發現他的真誠,他有嚴厲批判奈良僧侶的腐敗. 但根據筆
錄沙彌的說明,良遍上人認為當時並不是末法時代的開始,而是像法時代的結束,這是法相宗的觀點. 他期待佛教改革,因此他非常嚴厲地批判僧侶的腐敗情形. 也許為這個原因,雖他在早年曾苦讀經典以期在僧團中獲得較高的職位,但接近五十歲時,就從僧團的界及世界中退休隱居. 若想了解平安朝和鎌倉朝的僧侶世界,僧團職務是很重要的指標. 不管如何,他的大部分作品都完成於隱居後.

寫於建長二年(1250)的《厭欣鈔》,便是其中之一. 我們可以知道,他的淨土佛教思想,受到法相觀念的影響. 「唯識」的教義,影響他的思想最大. 他具體主張,人類應透過染淨苦樂的觀察,培養慈悲心. 我們認為這種具體性是他的特色之一. 他似乎肯定淨土就在一個人的心中,因他是以「唯識」理來思維的. 他認為若干其他法門也可以視為抵達淨土的方法. 我們也可以認為這種溫和的觀點是他的另一個特色.

他非常重視慈悲,這也可以視為另一特色. 慈悲就是利他行. 鎌倉朝的律宗僧侶,尤其是覺盛和叡尊,一般都是強調慈悲的修持. 我們認為,良遍上人之所以重視慈悲,是因他非常認同律宗,知道慈悲的重要性. 叡尊律
Created date2000.12.05
Modified date2016.09.13

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