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北朝至宋代彌勒信仰之流變及其影響
Author 古正美 ; 何湘妃 ; 李玉珉 ; 陳華 ; 黃敏枝 ; 楊惠南
Date1987.06
Pages238
Publisher行政院國家科學委員會
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type其他=Others
Language中文=Chinese
Note行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告,執行單位: 國立清華大學,計畫編號: NSC75-0301-H007-03
Keyword轉輪王; 彌勒下生; 彌勒菩薩=Maitreya; Cakravartin
Abstract北朝至隨唐,是彌勒信仰流行的時代。本研究計畫乃從佛經,圖像及歷史事蹟三方面來對其作一深入探討,以明瞭在此數百年間,彌勒信仰的流變及其影響 -- 尤其在政治活動方面。從各種有關彌勒的漢譯佛經中,可看出彌勒是釋迦人格的模擬化與理想化;轉輪王是世間「明君聖主」的特殊化。人們期望釋迦佛的精神不死,期盼完美政治的存在,就是彌勒下生經典受重視與所以流行之因。彌勒與轉輪王同時出現世間,彌勒作的是法身護法,轉輪王作的是生身護法。二者的結合實現了人間淨土,也普渡了眾生。北魏至唐代的一些帝王,以「如來」或「轉輪王」自居,以佛法與王法結合,來使其政權與治術合理化,權威化,例如:北魏文成帝,隋文帝與武則天皆是,但民間也有以追求人間淨土,自居為新佛或轉輪王的叛亂產生。
從隋唐的彌勒圖像來看,此時期的彌勒信仰仍以上生兜率天與下生人間淨土為中心,但比較比起,唐代彌勒佛像的數目遠較彌勒菩薩像的數目為多,同時彌勒經變相中,下生的亦比上生的經變像多得多,這也反映出彌勒下生信仰在民間流傳較普遍。

The period from the Northern Dynasties to T'ang Dynasty was a time when Maitreya faith was the predominant cult. This study probes into this phenomenon by examining the Buddhist scriptures (the sutras),the iconographic features of Maitreya imagery, and the historical events, with an aim to have a better understanding of the developments and influences--especially on political activities--of the Maitreya cult during these several hundred years.
We can see from the Chinese translations of the Buddhist scriptures that Maitreya is the simulation and idealization of the personality of Sakya, and that Cakravartin is a special case of good kings in the mundane world. People expected the eternity of the spirit of the Buddha Sakya, and the existence of a perfect political system. This is why the scripture about the coming of Maitreya into the mundane world attracted such serious attention, and why it was so prevalent.
Maitreya and Cakravartin appeared in this world at the same time. Maitreya operates the fa-shen protection, the Cakravartin operates the sheng-shen protection. The combination of the two realized the celestial Pure Land (sukhavati), and saved all beings. The Emperors from North Wei to Tang took themselves as Buddha or Cakravartin, and combined the Emperors' laws with the laws of the Buddha, so that the regimes and the governments could be rationalized and authoritarian; Emperor Wen-cheng of North Wei, Emperor Wen of Sui and Empress Wu of T'ang were examples. But among the people, there were also rebels who took themselves as the new Buddha or the new Cakravartin, pursuing the Pure Land.
Judging from the iconographs of Maitreya imagery of Sui and T'ang, the Maitreya faith in this period centered around returning to the heavenly paradise and coming into the celestial Pure Land. But comparatively speaking, the Buddha portraits of Maitreya in T'ang Dynasty outnumbered the Bodhisattva portraits of Maitreya in the same period. Also, in the ching pien hsiangs (narrative paintings based on sutras) of Maitreya imagery, those showing Maitreya's coming into the celestial Pure Land outnumbered those showing His returning to heaven. This fact also reflected the relative popularity of the faith of Maitreya's coming in civilian beliefs.
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Created date2000.12.07
Modified date2020.11.16



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