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中國佛教特點與現代社會人生=The Characteristics of Chinese Buddhism and the Modern Social Human Life
Author 洪修平 (著)=Hong, Xiu-ping (au.)
Source 第四屆中華國際佛學會議 -- 「佛教與廿一世紀」=The Fourth Chung Hwa International Conference on Buddhism: The Role of Buddhism in the 21st Century
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Location臺北縣, 臺灣 [Taipei hsien, Taiwan]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Note第四屆中華國際佛學會議 -- 「佛教與廿一世紀」, 法鼓山中華佛學研究所主辦, 2002年1月18-20日, 中央研究院學術活動中心. The Fourth Chung Hwa International Conference on Buddhism:The Role of Buddhism in the 21st Century, Organized by Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies, DDMBA; January 18-20, 2002, Auditorium of Acemic Activity Center, Acemia Sinica.
Keyword佛教與廿一世紀=Buddhism in 21st Century; 現代社會人生=Modern Social Human Life; 中國佛教特點=Characteristic of Chinese Buddhism; 重現世現生的人文精神=The Humanistic Spirit in Emphasizing Present World and Present Life
Abstract源遠流長的中國佛教文化已有了兩千年的歷史. 一種文化現象的長期存在,自有其深刻的必然性,文化的內在精神和社會人生的需求是其依存的最重要條件. 從中國佛教文化來看,其之所以綿延數千年而至今不絕,就在它包含著一定的積極因素,對現實的社會人生具一定的意義與價值. 因此,結合現代社會和人生來研究中國佛教的主特點和基本精神,發掘其中的精華,使之更好地為現代社會和人生服務,既是必要的,也是可能的.

關於中國佛教思想的特點,我們可以從不同的方面來看. 例如:中國佛教在其發展過程中形成了以融會般若性空論為特色的心性學說,並在中國佛教思想中佔據了主流地位; 中國佛教強調人人皆有佛性,人人能成佛的眾生平等說,鼓勵每個人靠自己的努力來實現解脫; 中國佛教重 "頓悟" 的直觀思維方式; 中國佛教比較崇尚簡易性; 中國佛教具對傳統思想文化的調和性; 中國佛教內部的融合性; 中國佛學的特質在禪; 中國佛教與社會政治和倫理有密切的關係,等等. 而中國佛教最重要的特點和最基本的精神乃是對現世現生的關注. 中國佛教既繼承了佛陀創教的基本精神,同時又在傳統文化的氛圍中把印度佛教所蘊含的對人或人生的關注及肯定作了充分的發揮與發展,佛教對人生永恒幸福的追求在重視現實社會人生的中國這塊土地上獲得了新的生命力. 從歷史上看,中國佛教在儒,道為代表的傳統文化重現實人生的文化氛圍中日益獲得了現實性的品格,豐富了傳統思想文化的人文主義精神,並與儒道一起,各以其獨特的精神在傳統文化中發揮著不同的作用.

佛教與儒,道一起構成了中國傳統思想文化的三大基本組成部分,佛教與儒道人生哲學的互補對現實的社會人生和人格的培養都是有意義的. 中國佛教所提倡的明心見性,反本歸宗,自性覺悟等等,在啟發人的生命自覺和超越,提高人的精神境界方面所起的作用,也是值得重視的. 在物質財富和人的物欲同步迅速增長的當今之世,在人們追求外在的財富而忘卻自身內在的價值和 "人" 的生活時,弘揚中國佛教的優秀精華是十分重要的. 如何幫助現代人擺脫各種精神困擾以安頓自我,正確對待物欲以提升自我,中國佛教應發揮它更大的作用.

The long Chinese Buddhist culture has a history of 2000 years. The long existence of one cultural phenomenon has its profound certainty. The inner spirit of the culture and the needs of the social human life are the most important conditions of its existence. From the perspective of Chinese Buddhist culture,why it can continue to exist for 2000 years until today is because that it contains certain positive factors, which have certain significance and value to the practical social human life. Therefore,it is necessary and also possible to integrate modern society and human life in studying the main characteristics and basic spirit of Chinese Buddhism,revealing its essence,and making it a better service for modern society and human life.

As regards the characteristics of Chinese Buddhist thought,we can examine from different angles. For example,in its process of development,Chinese Buddhism forms up the theory of mind nature which is characterized by integrating the theory of prajna emptiness, and also occupies the mainstream status in Chinese Buddhist thought; Chinese Buddhism emphasizes on the theory of the equality of sentient beings that everybody has Buddha nature and can become the Buddha, and encourages everyone to rely on one's efforts in attaining liberation; Chinese Buddhism emphasizes on the intuitive thinking of "instantaneous enlightenment"; Chinese Buddhism prefers simplicity; Chinese Buddhism is ready to harmonize with the traditional thought and culture; Chinese Buddhism is harmonious within its different sects; the characteristic of Chinese Buddhism is Ch'an; Chinese Buddhism has close relation with society,politics and ethics; and so on. The most important characteristic and the most fundamental spirit of Chinese Buddhism is the concern with present world and present life. On one hand,Chinese Buddhism inherits the Buddha's basic spirit in teaching; on the other hand,within the atmosphere of traditional culture,Chinese Buddhism fully exert and develop the concern and affirmation to mankind or human life as hidden in Indian Buddhism. The Buddhist pursuit of eternal happiness for human life gains a new vitality in China where the practical social human life is much emphasized. From the perspective of history,within the cultural atmosphere of emphasizing human life with Confucianism and Taoism as the representatives of the traditional culture,Chinese Buddhism gradually obtains the character of practicality,enriches the humanistic spirit of traditional thought and culture,and works together with Confucianism and Taoism to perform different function within traditional culture with their own unique spirit.

Buddhism together with Confucianism and Taoism form up the three fundamental components of Chinese traditional thought and culture. The fact that their human life philosophy supplements each other is meaningful to the practical social human life and the nurture of personality. It is also worthy of emphasis that such doctrines as "understanding one's mind and seeing one's nature","returning to the original
Created date2002.02.13
Modified date2016.08.18

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