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六、七世紀高昌佛教的淨土禪觀 -- 以吐峪溝禪觀圖為例=The Pure Land Meditation View of Kaochang Buddhism of the 6th-7th Century Based on the Example of the Meditation View Diagram of the Tuyukou Grottos
Author 賴文英 =Lai, Wen-ying
Source 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Pages113 - 134
Publisher圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
Publisher Url
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword吐峪溝; 淨土禪觀; 不淨觀; 淨觀; 四無量心
Abstract本文從吐峪溝石窟的比丘禪觀圖,說明六. 七世紀左右高昌佛教在禪法上從不淨觀到淨觀乃至淨土觀的開展,其中貫穿整個禪法開展的核心便是菩薩四無量心. 其禪法內涵銜接小乘通往大乘,印證當時禪法發展的取向,與五世紀以後北傳禪法的大乘化和往淨土的發展相符; 其淨土禪觀結合《觀無量壽佛經》中的十六觀,為禪法在實際用上提供一個經典的例證,也具體說明淨土法門從禪觀發展的一個面向; 其禪法修行目標由自我解脫的小乘「涅盤」導向利益眾生的菩薩「淨土」,表現出四無量禪法的精神,是大乘菩薩修行的最高宗旨,也是對大乘涅盤「常樂我淨」最終境界的體現!

This essay concerns the "Bhiksu Meditation View Diagram" (比丘禪觀圖) of the Tuyukou Grottos (吐峪溝石窟) of Kaochang Buddhism (高昌佛教) from approximately the 6th to 7th century. The "Four Boundless Minds of the Bodhisattva" (菩薩四無量心) serves as the core essential of its meditation techniques which range from the stages of the "contemplation on impurity" to the "contemplation on purity" up to the "contemplation on the pure land."
These meditation techniques span the range of the Hinayana up to the
Mahayana, validating the fact that its development coincided with the evolutionary direction of meditation methodologies of the time and with the shift towards Mahayana and pure land theory of post 5th century Buddhist thought. This pure land meditation view is based on the Sixteen Visualizations (十六觀) found in the Sutra on the Visualization of the Buddha of Immeasurable Life (佛說觀無量壽佛經) and serves as a realistic technique validated by a Buddhist scriptural source. This explains an aspect of how the development of meditational thought evolved the practice of Pure Land Buddhism.
The goal in cultivation of these meditation techniques is to turn from the nirvana of self-liberation (the motivation of Hinayana nirvana) towards the "Pure Land" of benefiting all sentient beings (the motivation of Mahayana nirvana). This expresses the spirit of the Four Boundless Minds and is the highest ideal of the bodhisattva's cultivation in the Mahayana vehicle. It is also a manifestation of the final stage of the nirvana of "permanence,bliss, self,and purity."
ISSN16086848 (P)
Created date2003.07.31
Modified date2017.07.25

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