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華嚴宗的可說與不可說 -- 以賢首法藏為中心=The Expressible and Inexpressible in Huayen Buddhism
Author 郭朝順 (著)=Guo, Chao-shun (au.)
Source 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
Pages85 - 133
Publisher Url
Location南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note1.作者為華梵大學哲學系助理教授=Assistant Professor,Department of Philosophy,Huafan University. 2.本篇論文為漢斯‧康特. 郭朝順. 米建國三位學者共同發表之論文「東西哲學對話:語言的界限」之其中一篇論文,其他尚有漢斯‧康特=Kantor, Hans-Rudolf所著的「天台宗的可說與不可說」及米建國所著的「維根斯坦的可說與不可說」兩篇相關論文.
Keyword佛教哲學=Buddhist Philosophy; 語言學=Linguistics; 華嚴宗=Hua-yen Buddhism; 天台宗=Tien-tai Buddhism=Tendaishu; 離言真如=truth beyond words; 頓教=sudden teaching; 不一不二=non-indentity and non-duality; 詭論=弔詭=paradox
Abstract華嚴宗判佛教為小始終頓圓五教,三祖法藏 (643-712) 將頓教說為離言真如,頓教乃作為由可說之小始終教跨向圓教之時,所特別標舉出之不可說的特性。然華嚴獨特之對可說與不可說關係的主張,可略為分為兩重:一為圓教之可說與不可說. 頓教與圓教對此問題有不同的說法,但皆主張可說與不可說是不二不二,亦即可說與不可說彼此是圓融無礙。
若依同時也是禪宗荷澤系法裔之華嚴四祖澄觀 (738-839) 、五祖宗密 (780-841) ,則認為頓教等同禪宗,此說實是有待斟酌,但華嚴與禪宗之關聯性,日人鎌田茂雄編有《禪典籍內華嚴資料集成》 (1984東京:大藏出版社) 一書已可證明,禪宗倡教外別傳直指心性,參究公案遂為開悟之重要方法,然禪公案之 [可說與不可說] 推其原始,確與華嚴頓教有其相關。
華嚴與天台思想代表中印佛學融合後的兩種不同的型態,但共同以 [圓教] 為最終極的教法,其中也有相同處。歷來天台與華嚴間即不斷相互吸收、相互批判,其對話傳統已逾千年。就二者就其為教導眾生證悟絕對真實的法門此一本質來說,其必然面對可說之教法與不可說真實間的弔詭,故對語言限度的思考,便為其哲學理論建構的必然話題,而再加入維根斯坦對語言界限的反省,形成天台、華嚴、維根斯坦三者間的多重對話,對華嚴宗哲學之研究可以開發一種全新的方向,也可以令人重新思考天台與華嚴哲學的差別。

The Expressible and Inexpressible in Huayen Buddhism
Huayen Buddhism classifies Buddhist doctrines according to five types of teaching:the small teaching,the initial teaching,the final teaching,the sudden teaching and the perfect teaching. The third patriarch Fazang (643-712) explains the sudden teaching as true suchness beyond words. The sudden teaching is marked by the inexpressible;it combines the small,initial and final teaching with perfect teaching. However,the interrelation of the expressible and inexpressible can be distinguished in two ways:the sudden teaching type and perfect teaching type. Both of them regard the relationship between the expressible and inexpressible as "non-identity and non-duality",it means that expressible and inexpressible can not obstruct each other,but cohere with each other.

The 4th and 5th Huayen patriarchs who simultaneously were Chan disciples held that the sudden teaching is nothing but Chan-school. The Japanese scholar Kamadashigeo proves the relationship between Huayen and Chan Buddhism in his work The Collection of Huayen-materials in the Chan-canon (Tokyo 1984 Taishou). The Chan-school promulgated the idea of transmission beyond teaching directly from mind to mind. It employed the methods of Gongan to initiate enlightenment. Originally the expressible and inexpressible of the Gongan in Chan-school is related with the sudden teaching in Huayan-school.

Huayen and Tiantai Buddhism represent two types of cultural integration between India and China. Their ultimate level of teaching is identically called 'perfect teaching',but except this commonality there are some differences. Historically,there was a lot of mutual influence,exchange and critics between these two schools, in total their dialogue has been lasting for more than thousand years. Both of them must face the paradox of the expressible teaching-level and inexpressible truth, when they instruct sentient beings to experience ultimate truth.

For that reason,their thoughts about limits of language become a necessary concern of their philosophy and theoretical speculations. If Wittgenstein's standpoint about limits of language is taken into account,a complex dialogue between the three standpoints of Tiantai,Huayen and Wittgenstein can be developed and possibly a new tendency in Huayen studies might be explored,which might also be fruitful for shedding light on differences between Huayen and Tiantai.
Table of contents一、前言 87
二、從教相思想看華嚴宗對語言界限探討 91
三、頓圓二教之兩層可說不可說 104
四、從法界一心之「一切皆真」論圓教的可說與不可說不二 117
五、結論 126
參考書目 128
ISSN16099575 (P)
Created date2004.02.13
Modified date2019.10.24

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