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論新疆阿艾石窟的盧舍那佛=The Vairocana Buddha of the Ah-ai Grottos in Xinjiang
Author 賴文英 (著)=Lai, Wen-ying (au.)
Source 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Pages149 - 187
Publisher圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
Publisher Url
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note作者單位:圓光佛學研究所圖像文獻研究室=Center of Iconography and Literature Research, Yuan Kuang Buddhist Institute
Keyword阿艾石窟=Ah-ai Grottos; 盧舍那佛=Vairocana Buddha; 法界人中像=dharma-realm renzhong statue; 新疆=Xinjiang; 龜茲=Kucha
Abstract阿艾石窟的盧舍那佛是華嚴造像中較為特殊的法界人中像,本文參照新疆、敦煌、中原等地所見的造像例,分析阿艾石窟盧舍那佛的圖像特徵與內涵,並討論盧舍那佛與窟內圖像組合間的關連性。本文認為佛身示現法界眾生的盧舍那佛,具體展現《華嚴經》中盧舍那法身的法界體性。阿艾石窟壁畫雖然有漢風因素,但盧舍那佛圖像的表現仍相當程度地保留了新疆本地如于闐和龜茲的特色,沿襲龜茲克孜爾以佛身含容法界眾生的表現,而將于闐盧舍那佛身中象徵智慧之光的日月轉化為鐘鼓,並保留代表般若體性的野馬,傳達造窟指導者對盧舍那法身概念的掌握。此法身之發展,從《十住經》的菩薩法雲地境界到《華嚴經》盧舍那佛的蓮華藏世界海,皆不離法身自在無礙之般若體性。在法身觀點的基礎上,阿艾石窟盧舍那佛以含容法界之般若體性擴大法身的意義,以十方佛開展菩薩念佛三昧境界為十方淨土,並藉以證入正壁的西方淨土乃至十方淨土,反映出在唐代華嚴思想成熟的背景下,盧舍那法身由菩薩念佛三昧的境界提昇至佛境界。同時進一步透過藥師佛作為結合密法菩薩的橋樑,為爾後榆林25 窟盧舍那佛與八菩薩曼荼羅的發展奠立基礎。

The Vairocana Buddha image is a special dharma-realm renzhong statue of Huayan ones. This paper will compare the images found in Dunhuang and Central China to analyze the characteristics and meanings of the Vairocana Buddha images in the Ah-ai Grottos. In addition, the relationships between the Vairocana and other images depicted in the cave are also discussed. This article argues that the Vairocana Buddha who manifests all sentient beings in the dharma-realm inside of Himself embodies the dharma-realm essence of the dharmakāya of Vairocana expounded in the Huayan Sutra. Despite some Han-style wall paintings in the Ah-ai Grottos, the Vairocana images show some local Xinjiang flavors such as Khotan and Kuche. The traditions of incorporating all sentient beings within the Buddha image in Kuche and Kizil as well as the wild horse which represents the essence of prajña were followed while the sun and moon as the symbols of wisdom in Khotan were changed into a drum and a bell. The phenomenon
described above suggests how the designer of the caves perceived the dharmakāya concept of Vairocona Buddha. The development of the dharmakāya concept as seen from the dharmacloud stage of Bodhisattva explicated in the Da?abhūmik to the world and sea of lotus-garbha, is connected to the prajña essence of the freedom/omnipotence anavrti dharmakāya. Based on the concept of dharmakāya, the Vairovana Buddha in the Ah-ai Grottos further develops the meaning of dharmakāya with the prajña essence that encompasses all dharma-realm. Furthermore, the Bodhisattva Nianfo samadhi was expanded into the Pure Lands of the Ten directions with the concept of the Buddhas of the Ten directions. Hence, to emerge in the Western Pure Land of the main wall through practice and wisdom, and ,eventually in the Ten Directions, is then possible. In other words, this reveals that under the matured Huayan context during the Tang Dynasty, the dharmakāya of Vairocana Buddha evolved from the Bodhisattva Nianfo samadhi into the state of Buddha. At the same time, the situation of
Bhaisajyaguru acting as a bridge to connect to the Tantric Bodhisattvas sets
up a foundation for the later Yulin Cave 25 where we see the development
of Vairocana Buddha with a Eight Bodhisattva Ma??ala.
Table of contents一、前言 152
二、身現法界眾生的盧舍那佛 155
三、從《十住經》到《華嚴經》──以法界為身的法身內涵 161
四、盧舍那佛與十方佛 167
五、盧舍那佛與窟內尊像組合諸問題 173
六、結論 177

ISSN16086848 (P)
Categories石窟; 佛教圖像; 繪畫
Created date2010.11.05
Modified date2018.03.09

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