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南朝「踞食論義」所反映儒、佛交涉的理論思維與文化意涵=Differences in Confucian and Buddhist Thought and Cultural Implications Reflected in the "Debate Over Eating While Squatting" in the Southern Dynasties
Author 紀志昌 (著)=Chi, Chih-chang (au.)
Source 臺大文史哲學報=Humanitas Taiwanica
Pages67 - 105
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English; 梵文=Sanskrit
作者為國立中山大學中國文學系副教授=Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, Sun Yat-sen University
Keyword南朝=Southern Dynasties; 儒佛交涉=interplay between Confucian and Buddhism; 名教=Confucian ethical codes; 踞食=eating while Squatting; 玄學=Neo-Taoism; 結跏趺坐=sitting cross-legged

"Eating while squatting" was a type of sitting ritual by monks, where they would squat (sit with legs out) while eating. It began in Wei-Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. This paper considers the criticism of "eating while squatting" by Southern Dynasties scholars Zheng Dao Zi and Fan Tai, to clarify the processes and reasons for it. The perspective of interplay between Confucianism and Buddhism is used to observe the theoretical concepts in the debate between them, to interpret the perspectives and the related cultural implications.
Squatting was traditionally seen as an improper and disrespectful posture, and for monks to eating while squatting certainly challenged the acceptance customs, views, and ritual concepts of the Chinese, which elicited doubt and criticism. Ritualists tended to use the thought models in mysticism, such as: "essence/triviality," "essence/function," and "when meaning is understood, words can be forgotten" as theoretical tools to explicate the concept of sages " creating ceremony based on local customs." In comparison, a monk considered the maintenance of principles of laws and monk organizational autonomy when using the "squatting" position while eating.
This paper finds that based on traditional cultural contexts, ritualists had many misunderstandings about the monk practice of eating while squatting. However, the purpose of the related debate was not to use Confucianism to govern Buddhism, but rather to introduce methods that both Confucians and Buddhists could accept ── that is to use a cross-legged as a compromise in sitting etiquette.
Table of contents一、前論:踞食論議之原委始末 68
(一)議論過程概述 68
(二)論議中持守踞食的「禪師」與相關僧人關係 76
二、踞食論議中的儒、佛交涉思維 79
(一)以「崇本」立和同之道 79
(二)從「得意」論證「名教」本於「自然」 85
三、踞食論議所反映的文化意涵 90
(一)「踞」式之文化情境的詮解 90
(二)僧人踞式的折衷、調和之道 ──結跏跌坐 95
四、結論 100
引用書目 102
英文摘要 104
ISSN10152687 (P)
Created date2013.01.10
Modified date2020.11.17

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