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日治台灣佛教的特點與研究=The Characteristics and Research on Buddhism in Japanese Colonial Taiwan
Author 闞正宗 (著)=Kan, Zheng-zong (au.)
Source 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Pages97 - 138
Publisher圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
Publisher Url
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword殖民主義=Japanese Colonialism; 皇國佛教=The Imperial Buddhism; 十五年戰爭; 寺廟整理=the researching and registering Taiwanese temples; 皇民化運動; Taiwan Buddhism
Abstract一、「皇國佛教」的定義:所謂「皇國佛教」(the Imperial Buddhism)明治維新後「神道國家化」、「佛教國家化」,是謂「明治佛教性格」。對內輔助神道、儒家教化,對外配合國家擴張主義,在殖民地扮演教化、同化、皇民化角色。
二、「皇國佛教」在臺灣殖民的歷史進程:在殖民統治51 年間,在以歷史事件為契機,劃分三個時期:
(1) 前期(1896~1915):探索與結盟
(2) 中期(1915~1931):合作與開展
(3) 後期(1931~1945):皇化與改造
前期,從軍僧及各宗布教師在臺灣的開教,以無分別、無選擇的方式尋找加盟的寺廟,並各自訂定各宗的開教計劃,而其中所遭遇的瓶頸亦多有所見。「西來庵事件」(1915 年)之前,總督府雖然啟動了組織「本島人宗教會」的構想,但是,被委任的黃玉階雖為先天派前輩,但不具宗教代表性,而未有結果。以辛亥革命為契機,政治表態式的台南地區齋教各堂的「齋心社」結成,為臺灣宗教「統一」運動踏出第一步。
「九一八事變」(1931 年)展開了日本史學界所稱的「十五年戰爭」。中日戰事的爆發,佛教所扮演的角色將極致化。從「九一八事變」,經「七七事變」到「太平洋戰爭」,佛教助成的角色,從「部落振興會」(1932 年)、「臺灣社會教化協議會」(1934 年)、「打破舊慣信仰運動」(1935 年)、「民風作興協議會」(1936 年)、「精神總動員(皇民化)運動」(1937 年),而因應「精神總動員運動」而來的「寺廟整理運動」,並以「寺院戰時體制」(1942 年)達到「皇國佛教化」的高峰。

Ⅰ The Definition of the Imperial Buddhism
The Imperial Buddhism, National Shinto, and National Buddhism after the Meiji Reform are Buddhism of Meiji. Not only the propaganda of Shinto and Confucianism in Japan did it strengthen but also the active expansion and cultivation, assimilation and the Kominka Movement in its colonial Taiwan.
Ⅱ The History of the Imperial Buddhism in Japanese Colonial Taiwan
In the fifty-one years of the Japanese Colonial Period, the Imperial Buddhism can be divided into three periods:
(1) the early period (1896-1915): exploration and alliance,
(2) the middle period (1915-1931): cooperation and development
(3) the later period (1931-1945): Kominka Moment and Modification
In the early period (1896-1915), Japanese Buddhist monks of different schools arrived in Taiwan and started their own preaching. They sought for alliance without any discrimination and made their own plans to start their preaching respectively. Therefore, it was unsurprisingly to see they encountered many challenges.
Before the Xilai Temple Incident, the Taiwan Governor-General Office organized the ‛Islanders Religious Association’; however, it failed because the assigned chairman, Yu-jie Haung, the patriarch of the Prior Heaven School, was not so representative of different Buddhist schools in
Taiwan. Later, in the Revolution of 1911, the first step of the union of Taiwan Buddhism was taken by Vegetarian Halls (Zhaixi She), formed by many vegetarian sects in Tainan.
In the middle period(1915-1931), the Xilai Temple Incident erupted. This incident led to the cooperation of Japanese Buddhism and Taiwanese Buddhism. Besides, it caused the Japanese government, having doubted the character of monks and vegetarians, to carry out a complete official
investigation of religious institutions. This policy accelerated the cooperation of Japanese Buddhism and Taiwanese Buddhism. Initiated by Rinzai Sect and Soto Sect, Buddhism spread out in Taiwan and was separated into local four Taiwan temple schools. Moreover, the Taiwan
Buddhist Dragon Flower Association, formed by the three main vegetarian sects, started to play an active role.
In the later period(1931-1945), Japan started its military invasion of northeast China in 1931, entering into what would become the fifteen years of war. With the eruption of the Sino-Japanese War (1931), Buddhism played a crucial role. Consequently, the Japanese colonial government forced Taiwanese Buddhists to revitalize the national spirit by organizing respective associations, such as the Revival of Tribes in 1932,the United Association of Taiwan Education Associations in 1934, the Moment of Transforming Old Customs in 1935, the Developed Folkways Society in 1936, and the Movement of Spiritual Mobilization in 1937. The continuous movements in researching and registering Taiwanese temples under the martial law all led to the transformation of Taiwanese Buddhism into the Imperial Buddhism in 1942.
Table of contents一、前言 103
二、歷史分期的觀察 104
三、日本殖民統治佛教的特點 136

ISSN16086848 (P)
Created date2013.07.23
Modified date2017.08.09

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