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以《雜阿含經》為依據探討「解開而認知世人」與「出離而超脫人世」在條理的一貫=The "Unfolding of Cognition into Human Beings" and "Detachedly Transcending the Human World" Could be Doctrinally Coherent: Mainly Based on the Samyuktāgama
Author 蔡耀明 (著)=Tsai, Yao-ming (au.)
Source 東海哲學研究集刊=Tunghai Journal of Philosophy
Pages3 - 33
Location臺中市, 臺灣 [Taichung shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword佛教哲學=Buddhist philosophy; 世人=human beings; 人世=human world; 解脫=liberation; 《阿含經》=Āgama-sūtra
Abstract本文以《雜阿含經》為主要的依據,探討「解開而認知世人」與「出離而超脫人世」這二方面的條理如何而可以是一貫的。在論述的行文,由如下的八節串連而成。第一節,「緒論」,開門見山,帶出研究主題,並且交代論文初步的構想與輪廓。第二節,以四個步驟的程序,鋪陳而闡明研究主題。第三節,分成二個小節,總論佛教解脫道的世人觀、人世觀、與解脫觀,藉以形成研究主題入門層次較為總括的認識,以及充為後續分析的前置作業。第四節,從《雜阿含經》數以千計的經文,選出其中的三則,當做例示,進行聚焦經文的主題析論。第五節,以《雜阿含經‧ 第42 經》為依據,搭配「蘊、入處、界」這一組三重的入手項目,將入手項目解開七個面向,展開觀察、思惟意義、如實認知的修學程序,從而體現本文主題之雙重一貫的條理。第六節,以《雜阿含經‧ 第69 經》為依據,以「有身」、五蘊為入手項目,帶出「有身」之「集趣道」與「滅道跡」,從而體現本文主題之雙重一貫的條理。第七節,以《雜阿含經‧ 第295 經》為依據,以今生之生存組合體並非任何生命體所擁有的物體為主旨,鋪陳「有因有緣世間集」與「有因有緣世間滅」,從而體現本文主題之雙重一貫的條理。第八節,「結論」,總結本文的要點。根據《雜阿含經》所鋪陳的「解開而認知世人」與「出離而超脫人世」,這在認知上與實踐上的二方面,其條理之得以一貫,大致得力於如下的六個要點。其一,徹頭徹尾既不建立也不接受任何實體性的概念認定或二分性的區隔框架。其二,雖然關切的是有情、世人、世間、人世,在探究上,並不以這些關切項目的浮面現象為底線,而是解開且深入考察一組又一組的生存組合體、生命體的構成部分、感官通路、知覺要素。其三,加強考察生存組合體乃至知覺要素的變化流程,更進一步解開這些項目之得以運轉的諸面向,尤其重視產生之動源、推動之關聯條件、後續延伸的路途、以及概括承受的困苦。其四,體認到生而為有情或世人卻受困在世間或人世在緣起方向的奔流,切要的對策,即沿著生存組合體乃至知覺要素的出離之面向,以停止或熄滅會持續推動生死漂流的關聯條件為方向,從而認清出離而超脫人世甚至超脫世間的條理與道路。其五,既不流於語詞的敷衍,也不採取對象式或局外式的研究,而是出之以局內式的觀察與認知,繼之以心態運行與生命運行往緣滅方向的實踐。其六,隨著認知緣起方向的奔流,以及完成緣滅方向的實踐,所謂的「解開而認知世人」與「出離而超脫人世」,正好在於緣起方向與緣滅方向的切換,這雙重的條理可以是一貫的。

Bases on the Saṃ yuktāgama as the main textual source, this paper discusses how the principles of "unfolding of cognition into human beings" and "detachedly transcending the human world" are thoroughgoing. The discourse consists of the following eight sections. The first is an introduction that opens up with the main research themes and the initial ideas and outline. The second section expounds the thesis in four steps. The third section discusses Buddhist path to liberation in terms of perspectives on human beings, human world, and liberation. As an initial and general understanding of the themes in question, the abovementioned perspectives also act as the preparatory procedure for subsequent analysis. Section four singles out three sūtras from the Saṃ yuktāgama to serve as examples to elucidate the main themes. Section five employs sūtra no. 42 of the Saṃ yuktāgama with a set of items, i.e. aggregate (skandha), sensory gateway (āyatana), and perceptual factor (dhātu), to unfold the thesis on seven aspects. Through the cultivation processes such as observation, contemplation, and cognition in reality, this section exemplifies the two-fold thoroughgoing principle of its main theme. Section six focuses on sūtra no. 69 of the Saṃ yuktāgama to discuss "actually existing body" (sakkāya) and the five aggregates. The "actually existing body" can be unfolded into samudayagāminī paṭ ipadā and nirodha-gāminī paṭ ipadā to exemplify the two-fold
thoroughgoing principle of its main theme. Based on sūtra no. 295 of the Saṃ yuktāgama, section seven expounds the theme that the composite body one has in this lifetime is not any substance owned by any being. As a result, the two-fold thoroughgoing principle can be exemplified as "the cause-and-conditioned origination of the world," and "the causeand-conditioned cessation of the world." The eighth section is the conclusion of this paper. There are six reasons why "unfolding of cognition into human beings" and "detachedly transcending the human world" can be thoroughgoing in both cognition and practice. Firstly, neither the conceptualization of substantiality nor any dividing frame of dichotomy is established or accepted at all. Secondly, even though the objects in question are sentient beings, human beings, the world, and human world, one does not take the superficial phenomena of these items in question as the bottom line. On the other hand, one should unfold and scrutinize them as sets after sets of living composites, constituent parts, sensory
gateways, and perceptual factors. Thirdly, one should focus on inspecting the temporal process of the living composites and perceptual factors. Consequently, one can further unfold all operational aspects, especially on the momenta in its origin, related conditions, subsequent extended
pathways, and the endured sufferings. Fourthly, one will dawn on the realization of the life as a sentient being or human being who is trapped i
Table of contents壹、緒論 5
貳、研究主題之闡明 6
叁、總論佛教解脫道的世人觀、人世觀、與解脫觀 7
一、佛教解脫道的世人觀與人世觀 7
二、佛教解脫道的解脫觀 10
肆、以《雜阿含經》的三則經文為例示 13
伍、《雜阿含經‧ 第42經》的雙重一貫之條理:五蘊之七處善巧的運轉 13
陸、 《雜阿含經‧ 第69 經》的雙重一貫之條理:「有身集趣道」與「有身滅道跡」 20
柒、 《雜阿含經‧ 第295 經》的雙重一貫之條理:「有因有緣世間集」與「有因有緣世間滅」 25
捌、結論 28
ISSN10255095 (P); 10255095 (E)
Created date2013.09.25
Modified date2022.12.22

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