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南齊張融的道佛交涉思維試釋:以《門律.通源》中與周顒的對話為主=Negotiating Thinking of Daoism and Buddhism in the Interpretation of Zhang Rong of the Southern Qi: Focusing on the Conversation with Zhou Yong in “Tongyuan” in Menlü
Author 紀志昌 (著)=Chi, Chih-chang (au.)
Source 中國文哲研究集刊=Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy
Pages45 - 88
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword六朝=Six Dynasties; 張融=Zhang Rong; 周顒=Zhou Yong; 二諦=two levels of truth; 道佛交涉=Daoist-Buddhist syncretism; 重玄=Chong Xuan School
Abstract 六朝時期的三教交涉,一直是學術文化史上既重大而又複雜紛繁的課題,其中道、佛二教,在當時既各擅勝場,亦相激相盪。洎乎齊、梁,二教的矛盾對立加深,至終顯題化為「夷夏論爭」,然而在這樣的氛圍中,卻有一位「門世恭佛」的名士張融 (444-497),嘗試為二家作出調節,而有《門律.通源》之論。

Syncretism of the three main teachings in the Six Dynasties has always been a significant and complex subject in the studies of the history of literature and culture. Among them, Daoism and Buddhism are both influential religions with numerous adherents, thus leading to contradictions and arguments between them. Up until the Qi and Liang dynasties, the clash between the two religions deepened and exacerbated, and finally concretized the argument of “barbarian (foreign) vs Chinese (orthodox).” In this social atmosphere, however, one prominent scholar, Zhang Rong, tried to mediate between the two schools and developed his argument in “Tongyuan” in Menlü.
The implication of “Tongyuan” is to adjust both Daoism and Buddhism; thus Zhang Rong proposed that Daoism be the foundation with Buddhism as the form. It is by nature a broad-minded interpretation of Lao Zi with the premise that by using Dao to explain Buddhism, the latter can be merged into the former. It is further developed into a harmonious mixture of Daoist/Buddhist philosophy. In terms of the “logic realm,” it focuses on the subject’s conscience (mind-nature) in order to achieve inner stillness. On the other hand, in terms of the context of teaching, it combines Zhuang Zi’s “middle thought” and Lao Zi’s “nothingness.”
Zhou Yong’s rebuttal is based on Buddhism’s “Theory of Three Schools” to clarify the distinction between the two teachings. He contends that Lao Zi’s“nothingness” is still limited to the “logic realm” of “knowing” (the “being” or “non-being”), which is similar to the “false (or exoteric) religion.” As a result, Zhou concludes that all three teachings should go back to Buddhism.
In the end, the historical and cultural meaning of “Tongyuan” lies in its self-consciously upgraded and transformed theorization in the face of the threat of rising Buddhism and its doctrine, and the tension from the “foreign-orthodox” theory at the time. It also explains the transitional factors that lead Daoist teachings towards the development of the Chong Xuan School.
Table of contents一、前論:張融的信仰背景 45
(一)吳郡張氏奉佛之由來 46
(二)張融與佛、道之關涉 47
二、〈通源〉的道、佛融攝觀 53
(一)道本佛迹 53
三、周顒對道、佛之辨異 69
(二)佛統儒/道 77
四、結論:〈通源〉道佛之辨的學術史意義 80
ISSN10176462 (P)
Created date2014.07.11
Modified date2019.08.07

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