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方東美對中國大乘佛教亦宗教亦哲學的基本立場=Thome H. Fang's Philosophical Position on Chinese Mahayana Buddhism as a Religion and Philosophy
Author 杜保瑞
Source 師大學報:語言文學類=Journal of National Taiwan Normal University: Linguistics & Literature
Volumev.56 n.2
Pages1 - 31
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword三教辯證=debate between Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism; 方東美=Thome H. Fang; 中國大乘佛學=Chinese Mahayana Buddhism; 宗教=religious; 哲學=philosophy
Abstract  當代中國哲學家方東美先生,學貫中西,晚年為中國哲學的介紹貢獻心力,排比三教卻最終信仰佛教,而在理論的建構中則將中國大乘佛學建立為人類最高級的理論類型。本文之作,即為針對其對中國大乘佛教的理論定位而談。方先生首先以佛教哲學亦宗教亦哲學定位之,既同意其為宗教的典型,又倡說它的哲學義涵。以此為基礎,更在中國儒釋道三教關係的問題上,主張中國大乘佛學徹底中國化的立場。簡言之,就是以中國儒道哲學共有的兼天地、備萬物的精神說為中國大乘佛學之所共有,甚至以大乘佛學更廣大的世界觀而說其有超越儒道之勢。本文旨在討論方先生的宗教與哲學的定位意見,以及找出他談論中國哲學特質的重要意見,並針對他的佛教中國化之議題提出若干反思,指出所論之中國化立場皆是佛經原有的思想,並非到了中國之後才有的,因此,說為與中國儒道哲學的特質接近是可以的,過度強調其徹底中國化的結果,恐又將引發中國儒釋道三教份際的辨證問題。當然,這也正是反映了方先生的中國哲學立場,即是在當代的中國哲學家中,方東美先生是最能從哲學的高度高舉佛學比較儒道的立場,因而有別於當代新儒家的進路。

 Thome H. Fang was a modern Chinese philosopher who learned Western and Eastern philosophy thoroughly and contributed his efforts to the introduction of Chinese philosophy in the latter part of his life. He compared the three main Chinese schools, though finally believed in Buddhism, and also regarded the Chinese Mahayana Philosophy as the highest philosophical system in human history. The objective of this article is to define his Buddhist philosophy. Thome H. Fang first considered Chinese Mahayana Buddhism as a typical religion and also a philosophical system. Based on this, he spoke on the relation between the three main schools, and suggested that Chinese Mahayana Buddhism had been Sinicized completely. The spirit of Chinese Philosophy regarding containing the world as a united one was also the main position of Mahayana Buddhism, and he extended this belief, which was caused by his significantly expanded worldview. This article will criticize this position, indicating that the so-called Sinicizing characteristic was oriented from traditional Buddhist sutra, and did not occur after its coming to China. Thus, saying Mahayana Buddhism quite like Chinese philosophy was acceptable, though overemphasizing its Sinicizing dimension gave rise to serious debates between the three main Chinese philosophical schools. Furthermore, the issue reveals Thome H. Fang’s Chinese philosophical position, which implies that among all the modern Chinese philosophers, Thome H. Fang is the most significant philosopher in upholding Buddhism compared to Confucianism and Taoism through philosophical approaches. This renders his system a different philosophical style than modern Neo-Confucianism.
Table of contents一、前言
Created date2015.06.01
Modified date2015.06.01

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