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台灣佛教的放生與不放生:宗教信念、動物風險與生態風險的考量=To Do and Not to Do Animal Release in Taiwanese Buddhism: The Intertwining of Religious Ideas, Animal Risk, and Ecological Risk
Author 陳家倫 (著)=Chen, Chia-luen (au.)
Source 臺灣社會學
Pages101 - 143
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword放生=animal release; 佛教=Buddhism; 宗教社會學=sociology of religion; 宗教與生態=environmental ethics; 業報觀=karma
Abstract 本文試圖瞭解台灣佛教團體為何有的放生?有的不放生?從行動者的角度,解析宗教信念及其放生風險(即動物風險和生態風險)的評估,與佛教團體的放生/不放生以及如何放生的關連。本研究發現,宗教信念不僅提供放生的動機與目的,也是放生團體化解放生風險內在矛盾和弔詭的解藥。放生的本質在於宗教倫理的實踐,當放生與動物倫理或生命倫理衝突時,放生者必須從宗教信念(如動機論和慧命觀)合理化放生的弔詭,或者致力發展新的放生技術來降低動物風險。台灣佛教內部對放生有關的各種宗教信念,有著複雜的解讀與認知歧義,放生理由不限於一種動機或目的,而不放生者所抱持的理由亦不盡相同,其中包括肯定放生的初衷,但因顧慮放生風險而不放生的例子。放生者之間又因動機與目的,以及對放生的動物風險和生態風險的認知差異,衍生出不同的放生技術和方式。多數改進放生方式的團體,重視動物風險多於生態風險。有的放生團體認為生態風險是可控制的,有的認為生態風險是佛教的外部問題。放生作為一種宗教實踐與行動,無論是否成為教團發展與吸引信眾的一種策略,宗教信念的支持是正當化與合理化宗教行動的必要論述。

This paper attempts to clarify the reasons why certain Taiwanese Buddhist groups do animal release, whereas others do not. Based on the actors' viewpoints, this research tries to identify the religious ideas and to categorize the ways that the evaluation of animal risk and ecological risk in the events of animal release relate to the attitudes and behaviors of Taiwanese Buddhist groups. The results show that religious thoughts not only convey the ethics of animal release, but serve as antidotes to dissolve the paradox of animal release. The practices of animal release among Taiwanese Buddhist groups are also quite diversified. The reasons and ways of both doing and not doing animal release have various patterns that imply different religious assessments. Some releasers modified the ways of animal releasing with better control of animal risk and/or ecological risk. Some releasers maintain that ecological risk is manageable; some releasers treat ecological risk as an irrelevant or external issue to Buddhism. Although animal release could be a strategy to mobilize followers, religious ideas and interpretations are critical to the rationalization and justification of animal release.
Table of contents一、導言 103
(一)台灣佛教的放生與不放生:行動者的角度 103
(二)資料來源與分析架構 106
二、台灣佛教的放生概況 108
(一)放生概況的各項調查報告 108
(二)不同教派的放生態度與行為 109
(三)放生模式的多元化 111
1. 獨立的集體放生 112
2. 伴隨法會的集體放生 113
3. 委託專人無法會的放生 114
4. 封閉環境的放生 115
5. 海外放生 116
三、宗教信念的差異:為何放生/不放生 117
(一)消業與積功德原型 118
(二)慈悲原型 120
(三)培養慈悲心原型 122
四、放生結果的弔詭:動物風險 125
(一)動物風險的控制 126
(二)動物死亡的弔詭 vs.慧命觀 127
(三)放生者的業報 vs.動機論 129
五、放生結果的認知與控制:生態風險 130
(一)積極控制生態風險的放生 132
(二)無關生態學的放生 134
六、討論與結論 137
Created date2015.07.06
Modified date2020.06.15

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