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the Market Approach to the Rise of the Geluk School, 1419–1642
Author McCleary, Rachel M. ; Van der Kuijp, Leonard W. J.
Source Journal of Asian Studies
Volumev.69 n.1
Pages149 - 180
PublisherAssociation for Asian Studies
Publisher Url
LocationAnn Arbor, MI, US [安娜堡, 密西根州, 美國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
NoteRachel M. McCleary ( is Senior Research Fellow in the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Leonard W. J. van der Kuijp ( is Professor of Tibetan and Himalayan Studies at Harvard University.
AbstractReligious pluralism characterized Tibetan Buddhism by the eleventh or twelfth century, allowing for the development of many schools and sects with little differentiation in religious products. The early Ming dynasty (1368–1424) saw a significant shift in policy on Tibetan affairs compared to the Mongolian Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). Relative disengagement from Tibet translated into a liberalization of local politics, resulting in a shift from secular politics and clan wealth to ecclesiastical monastic institutions. The Geluk sect formed during this period, introducing superior technology in its organizational characteristics—celibacy, ordained abbots, casuistical adherence, scholastic training, and doctrinal orthodoxy—that distinguished it from other schools and sects. With the loss of its major Tibetan patron, the Gelukpa faced a serious challenge from its fiercest competitor, the Karmapa, and raised the stakes by introducing the incarnate position of the Dalai Lama and his labrang (financial estate). This allowed the Gelukpa to directly compete with the Karmapa for wealthy patrons. By forming an alliance with the Mongols, the Gelukpa were willing to counter violence with violence to become the monopoly religion.
Table of contentsTheory of A Religion Monopoly 150
The Rise of Competition in the Tibetan Religion Market 152
The Liberalization of Politics and the Deregulation of Religion 155
The Context for the Rise of the Geluk School 159
Formation of the Geluk School 161
Club Model Characteristics of the Geluk School 163
Competition and Consolidation of a Monopoly Religion 167
Empirical Evidence on the Growth of the Geluk School 173
Conclusion 176
Acknowledgements 176
List of References 177
ISSN00219118 (P); 17520401 (E)
Created date2015.10.15
Modified date2020.03.16

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