Hayes, Richard P.
Zalta, Edward N.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
|Publisher||The Metaphysics Research Lab|
|Location||Stanford, CA, US [史丹佛, 加利福尼亞州, 美國]|
|Content type||專題研究論文=Research Paper|
|Abstract||The Madhyamaka school of Buddhism, the followers of which are called Mādhyamikas, was one of the two principal schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India, the other school being the Yogācāra. The name of the school is a reference to the claim made of Buddhism in general that it is a middle path (madhyamā pratipad) that avoids the two extremes of eternalism—the doctrine that all things exist because of an eternal essence—and annihilationism—the doctrine that things have essences while they exist but that these essences are annihilated just when the things themselves go out of existence. The conviction of the Madhyamaka school, which can be called the Centrist school in English, is that this middle path is best achieved by a denial that things have any inherent natures at all. All things are, in other words, empty of inherent natures. This doctrine of universal emptiness of inherent natures (svabhāva-śūnyatā) is the hallmark of the school, which places the school solidly in the tradition associated with the Perfection of Wisdom (prajñāpāramitā) literature of Mahāyāna Buddhism.|
The key texts of the school comprised commentaries to the writings of Nāgārjuna—the works of Nāgārjuna most often commented upon are the Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā (MMK) and Vigraha-vyāvartanī (VV)—and a number of independent works that expanded on ideas found in Nāgārjuna's writings. A few of the Sanskrit treatises of the early Madhyamaka school were translated into Chinese and became the basis of a short-lived school of Chinese Buddhism. A significant number of Sanskrit Madhyamaka texts were eventually translated into Tibetan and exerted considerable influence on the intellectual heritage of Tibetan Buddhism. This article will deal only with the Madhyamaka school in India from the fifth through the eighth centuries, during which time the school underwent most of its evolution.
|Table of contents||[Table of Contents]|
1. Issues in the Madhyamaka school
2. Buddhapalita (fl. ca. 500)
3. Bhāvaviveka (fl. ca. 550)
3.1 Life and works
4. Candrakīrti (fl. ca. 600)
4.1 Life and works
5. Śāntideva (fl. ca. 690)
5.1 Life and works
6. Jñānagarbha (fl. ca. 720)
6.1 Life and works
7. Śāntarakṣita (fl. ca. 750)
7.1 Life and works
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