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清末民初太虛大師佛教護國維新理念探析=Late Qing Master Taixu: Revival of Buddhism in Early Republic of China
Author 釋道禮=Shi, Dao-li
Source 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Pages181 - 216
Publisher圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
Publisher Url
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword佛教復興=Buddhist revival; 太虛大師=Master Taixu; 人生佛教=Life Buddhism; 僧伽制度=Sangha system; 菩薩行=activity of Bodhisattva
Abstract近代中國的佛教文化,可說是繼隋唐以來中國佛教的另一個重要開展,而其勃興與發展,則是僧俗兩界有識之士共同努力的結果。清末民初之際,中國佛教界知識分子的維新活動,不僅受外在環境的刺激,導致一連串革新行動;內在也突破傳統理論的限制,表現出諸多新的理論思潮。在佛教傳承上,民國以來的佛教界,繼「中國佛教復興之父」-楊文會之後,以太虛大師為中心的出家學僧,受到海內外重視,也發生過極大影響,堪稱時代交替的重要人物。他於民初發起以「人生佛教」思想為主軸的佛教復興運動,試圖改革僧伽制度、提倡積極參與社會活動,美國學者白德滿(DonA. Pittman)稱他為:「現代化佛教的領袖人物。」太虛大師所謂人生的佛學,即是以現代人生為起點,用「人生的」、「群眾的」而又「科學的」人生佛教來發展生存,導人至正覺為主要目的。其所提出的人生佛教,恰是清末民初西學傳入,孫中山三民主義建國大綱初行之時,太虛大師將其與佛教教義連結,所具之維新思想足可代表當時佛教界知識分子的新思潮,欲藉西學融入於佛教改革,使當時衰微的中國佛教能夠提振復興起來。建立僧團制度,實際上是落實在戒律的規範下,將僧伽制度建立起來,藉以培養合格的出家專業人才。僧材是弘揚佛法的重要根本,欲續佛慧命,必須對於佛教義理明瞭透徹,如此傳播佛法教義才不至於以盲導盲。太虛大師所建立的新式佛教教育與順應時代的弘法方式,立足近代佛教發展過程來看,實是治近現代佛教史中不容忽略者,亦為中國佛教帶來了新的契機。

Late Qing Master Taixu, recognized as the leader of Buddhist reform movement, and several Buddhist intellectuals collaborated to remodel and
revive Buddhist culture in Early Republic of China. The cooperation between the clerical and secular circles set a new milestone for the
development of Buddhism since Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty. In late Qing Dynasty, the Chinese Buddhist community strived to reform the
ancient Sangha system. The intellectual communities in China and oversea recognize the efforts of Master Taixu. Master Taixu promoted “Life
Buddhism” as the core value of the Buddhist revival movement in early Republic of China. “Life Buddhism” encourages a more proactive approach to improve local society with Buddhism. Master Taixu considered that an ideal Buddhist, who follows the teaching of life Buddhism, and guides
individual with a more scientific approach. The Buddhist scholar adopted Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s San-min Doctrine. The Master considered its teaching to
be an inspiring reference for “Life Buddhism” which will help to enhance the Buddhist communities. The reconsolidation of the Sangha system, in
fact, focused on the amendment of its rule and thus improve the process of training and qualification. Master Taixu aspired that the integration of
western philosophy and the spirits of Buddhism will not only effectively spread Buddha’s wisdom, but also cradle more new-blood of professionals.
Table of contents一、前言 185
二、太虛大師-佛教現代化之改革者 188
三、佛教救國理念-新中國與新佛教 192
(一) 在革命的烽火下捍衛佛法 193
(二) 新中國與新佛教建設之藍圖 198
四、維護僧團不遺餘力-建立僧伽制度 200
五、護法護教-人生佛教真實踐 203
六、結論 210
ISSN16086848 (P)
Created date2015.12.29
Modified date2017.08.16

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