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無縁供養の動態性=On the Dynamism of Muen Kuyo(Spiritual Aid for the Dead without Bonds)
Author 池上良正 (著)=Ikegami, Yoshimasa (au.)
Source 宗教研究=Journal of Religious Studies=シュウキョウ ケンキュウ
Volumev.86 n.2 (總號=n.373)
Date2012.09.30
Pages3 - 27
Publisher日本宗教学会
Publisher Url http://jpars.org/
Location東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language日文=Japanese
Note池上良正(駒澤大学教授)
<特集>災禍と宗教=Religion and Calamities
Keyword死者供養; 無縁; 東アジア; 施餓鬼; 民衆仏教
Abstract日本語の「無縁供養」は、系譜上の祀り手を失った死者のほか、戦乱・事故・自然災害などの災禍によって非業の死をとげたと見なされた人々を追弔・慰撫する言葉として用いられている。広くは「苦しむ死者」を救済する代表的な言葉である。「死者供養」を東アジアで形成され民衆層に普及した、ユニークで動態的なひとつの「救済システム」として捉えるとき、そこには、(A)親孝行や先祖の孝養という側面と、(B)何らかの未練や怨念を残した死者(苦しむ死者)たちの救済という側面の二面性を指摘できるが、「無縁供養」に代表される(B)の「苦しむ死者の救済」は、このシステム全体を存続させる原動力を供給し続けてきたことが注目される。本稿ではこの「無縁供養」の構造と展開過程を考察する。そこに潜在していた「無遮」と「無主」との有機的な動態性は、救済システムとしての「死者供養」が広く民衆層に定着するさいの原動力になっていた、という見通しを示す。

In Japanese, muen kuyo refers to spiritual aid generated in situations where the deceased no longer has any living relatives to provide him or her offerings, as well as to mourning and consolatory practices made on behalf of those who are perceived to have met violent deaths in war, accidents, natural disasters, and other acutely unfortunate circumstances. It is widely known and applied in situations where the spirits of the dead are thought to be suffering (kurushimu shisha). Viewed as a unique, dynamic soteriological system that emerged in East Asia and spread throughout all levels of society, the practices collectively referred to as shisha kuyo ("spiritual aid for the dead") are characterized according to two aspects: A) a focus on filial piety and ancestral duties, and B) concern with spiritual relief for those who have died with lingering regrets or animosity. It is the latter-spiritual relief for suffering spirits, of which muen kuyo is the primary manifestation-that has provided the driving force behind this system as a whole. Building upon a thorough consideration of the structure and historical development of muen kuyo, this paper argues that its inherent musha (unlimited) and mushu (unaided) organic dynamism has provided shisha kuyo practices with the momentum necessary to penetrate greater society.
Table of contents[Table of Contents]

はじめに 3
一、現代中国の寺院儀礼に存続する「無遮」と「無主」の動態性 6
ニ、中国大陸における「死者供養」の動態性―現況と歴史的背景― 10
三、中世後期の日本における「死者供養」の二重動態構造 15
四、無縁供養の逆説 18
おわりに 22
注 24
ISSN03873293 (P)
Hits64
Created date2016.03.28
Modified date2019.08.15



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