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六朝佛法與世教交涉下的戒殺論述=“Discourse on Refraining from Killing”: Views from Buddhism and the Mundane Teachings during the Six Dynasties
Author 紀志昌 (著)=Chi, Chih-chang (au.)
Source 中國文哲研究集刊=Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy
Volumen.45
Date2014.09.01
Pages41 - 94
Publisher中央研究院中國文哲研究所
Publisher Url http://www.litphil.sinica.edu.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:中山大學中文系副教授
Keyword六朝=Six Dynasties; 戒殺=refraining from killing; 居士=lay Buddhists; 仁道=benevolence; 護生=protecting lives; 儒佛交涉=interaction between Buddhism and the mundane teachings
Abstract 六朝時期,世局紛亂,篡弒易鼎頻仍,爭戰殺伐所在多有,士人值此環境,往往怵惕生死,憂生傷逝。適逢佛法寖盛,信受「五戒」者漸趨普及,其中「戒殺」護生之教尤為時人所措懷,亦乃若名士、將相、執政者等信受者心中赫然醒目的重大議題。自東晉至齊、梁,相關論議與文獻記錄頗夥,諸議題亦廣涉哲學、宗教、政治、社會層面,而富涵濃厚的時代性意義。
「戒殺」在命題上,除了有普遍而抽象的議題性質,也能彰顯戒律的根本意義。本文從原始佛教的「殺生戒」談起,以突顯六朝時期相關觀點承轉的脈絡,結合當時之文書論議,疏理士、僧容受此一問題的義解立場。所謂的「戒殺論述」,除了教義內部的諍論,這當中所蘊涵更多的是時人對應於傳統而又程度不等的接受觀點,論述的建構亦包涵著實踐的意圖,一部分也是信仰意識與社會思潮相互辯證或輝映的產物。
就「世教」與「佛教」的交涉而論,本文從以下三大面向作出觀察:(一)世教接受戒殺觀念的基礎——殺生致報;(二)慈護實踐與世教「仁道」思想的交涉;(三)「究竟慈悲」論反饋於二教的最終上綱。此中包括佛教如何從一開始藉由果報立場,以論消極禁限的「戒殺」之道,啟動對「世教」的影響,從而進深至積極面的菩薩道實踐與世教傳統交涉會通,所發展出的「究竟慈悲」論,復反饋於原先儒佛權漸之教的歷程。而六朝士人對二教之間所存在「權/實」判教關係的發明,也是整個戒殺論述中相當有創意而值得關注的地方。

The Six Dynasties were constantly plagued by assassinations and wars—a chaotic period of history. Naturally, scholars were sensitive to the matters of life and death. The “five precepts” became popular among Buddhists. Among the five precepts, the “precept forbidding killing” was widely discussed among intelligentsia. From the Eastern Jin to the Qi and Liang times, numerous discourses and writings were produced. These writings abound with philosophical, religious, political, and social perceptions of the time.
Notwithstanding its broad and abstract character, the topic of “refraining from killing” demonstrates the fundamental meaning of the precepts as well. In order to examine the development and contexts of this precept from the Six Dynasties, this paper begins with a discussion of the “precept forbidding killing” in Original Buddhism. Writings reflective of the discourse at the time represent the opinions of contemporary scholars and monks, indicating the differences among doctrines, meanwhile illustrating the variance among coeval scholars and monks. Their positions express practical intent and display the various degrees of belief and social acceptance.
This paper reveals the interaction between Buddhism and non-Buddhist teachings as follows. First of all, the “mundane teachings” accept the concept of “forbidding killing”—killing results in retribution. Secondly, the concept of compassion, underlying refusal to kill, expands the concept of “benevolence” in the mundane teachings. Thirdly, “ultimate compassion” is the crucial goal in both Buddhism and the mundane teachings. From a passive “precept forbidding killing” and developing into an active exercise with the goal of becoming a Bodhisattva, “ultimate compassion” is a creative practice, which is one of the results of the “two divisions: the provisional and the perfect” of the Six Dynasties.
Table of contents一、前論:本文的研究取向 41
(一)從原始佛教的「殺生戒」談起 41
(二)學界研究動向的啟發 44
(三)世教的應對與戒殺論述 45
二、世教接受戒殺觀念的基礎─殺生致報 47
(一)〈奉法要〉中的戒殺觀點 49
(二)所殺對象之「無情/有情」 50
(三)三世因果之「契/不契」 55
(四)肉食不淨的因果律理解 62
三、慈護實踐與世教「仁道」思想的交涉 64
(一)以「仁道」釋護生——實踐對象之拓展 64
(二)「仁道」治生的不同理解 66
(三)「仁道」的權漸與究竟之辨 69
四、「究竟慈悲」論反饋於二教的最終上綱 77
(一)世教祠祀信仰的變革 78
(二)世教之究竟禁斷對導裁僧伽的影響 83
五、總結 85
ISSN10176462 (P)
Hits333
Created date2016.04.22
Modified date2020.11.17



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