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The bibliographic record is provided by 中華民國佛教華嚴學會=Huayen World Community.
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論唐代華嚴宗的佛性思想 -- 以智儼、法藏、澄觀、宗密的佛性論為中心=On the Buddha-Nature Thought of Huayen School of Tang Dynasty -- Especially about Zhiyan, Fazang, Chengguan and Zongmi
Author 胡建明 (著)
Source 華嚴學報=Journal of Huayen Buddhism
Pages51 - 76
Publisher Url
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword佛性思想=Buddha-nature though; 唐代華嚴宗=Huayen School of Tang Dynasty; 有情成佛論=Enlightenability of sentient beings; 非情成佛論=Enlightenability of sentient beings
Abstract佛性論是在印度形成、並在中國得以不斷完善和發展的重要佛教思想之一。《大般涅槃經》中所說的「一切眾生,悉有佛性」,即是眾生平等,皆成佛道的「有情成佛論」,對中國佛教思想的形成與發展起到了極大的推進作用。在曇無讖的《涅槃經》未譯出之前,道生便主張「闡提成佛說」,這成為中國佛性論的濫觴。印度佛性思想本沒有遍界無盡的內涵,但是傳到中國後,佛教界中才主張佛性與法性(法界性)該攝融合,漸次擴張外延,從而形成了無情也具佛性,也能夠成佛的「無情成佛論」。將無情之物認作有佛性的中國佛教思想家,最具有代表性的是隋末初唐創立三論宗的嘉祥大師吉藏 (549-623),而將之更趨向哲學化的是中唐的天臺中興之祖荊溪湛然 (712-782)。而華嚴宗人,如二祖智儼、三祖法藏基本上都堅持「有情成佛論」的觀點。四祖清涼澄觀 (738-839) 曾經從師於天臺湛然和牛頭慧忠,因此在成佛論中開始有兼說融通的傾向。禪宗內的荷澤神會 (684-758) 則明確反對「無情成佛論」,那麼,傳承荷澤禪法統的華嚴五祖圭峯宗密 (780-841) 的見解又如何呢?圍繞這些問題,有必要對中國「成佛論」的整個思想背景和發展過程作一回顧和評述。

The Buddha-nature thought is produced in India and gradually developed in China. Mahāparinirvāna-sūtra propagates the teaching of Buddha-nature in all sentient beings, which played a great role in Chinese Buddhism history. Before the translation of Mahāparinirvāna-sūtra by Dharmaraksa, Daosheng has put forward the idea about the enlightenability of icchantika, which is the origin of Chinese Buddha-nature thought. But this idea is only limited in sentient beings, not include non-sentient beings, for example, the river, mountain and earth etc. It is to say that, when Buddha-nature thought in India it did not be general at the extreme. But after its translation into China, it come into combination with Dharma-nature, and gradually developed the idea of the enlightenability of non-sentient beings. In Chinese Taoism, there is the opinion of “If a man becomes immortal, even his hen and dog become immortal too”, and in Chinese Buddhism there is a story about a stone’s approval of Daosheng’s preaching, but these are literary stories without constant philosophical basis. The most representative thinker in Chinese Buddhism history who hold the idea of the enlightenability of non-sentient beings is Jizang(549-623) in Sui and Tang Dynasty, and the one who makes it more philosophical is Zhanran(712-782) of Tiantai sect in Middle Tang Dynasty. People of traditional Huayen school generally hold the idea of the enlightenability of sentient beings. Chengguan(738-839) of Huayen school has received instruction from Zhanran and Huizhong of Niutou Chan Buddhism, there is a integration tendency in his Buddha-nature thought. Shenhui(684758) clearly opposed the thought of the enlightenability of non-sentient beings. Zongmi(780-841) succeeded to Shenhui and hold the standpoint of human beings, distinctly claim the enlightenability of sentient beings which is counter to the prevailing thought of the enlightenability of non-sentient beings in Chan sect. But after Zongmi, Chan Buddhism of Nanyue and Jiangxi which was just considered as a branch by Zongmi, now become the main force of Chinese Buddhism and the idea of the enlightenability of non-sentient beings becomes prevailing, especially in the Yunmen Chan sect, although there still are some famous Koan for non-enlightenability of non-sentient beings. After Zongmi’s death, his thought becomes weak in Chinese Chan Buddhism, but his thought of the enlightenability of sentient beings and ontology of human nature influenced upon Neo-Confucianist of Song and Ming Dynasties greatly. For example, the theory of mind of Zhou Dunyi, the Cheng brothers, Zhu Huian and Lu Xiangshan, and the idea of conscience of Wang Yangming are influenced directly or indirectly by Zongmi’ Buddha-nature thought.
ISSN22226685 (P)
Created date2016.04.25
Modified date2022.12.08

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