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永明延寿と「教禅一致」——調停者としての延寿像の変遷=永明延壽與「教禪一致」――作為調和者的延壽形象之變遷=Yongming Yanshou and the “Unity of Doctrinal and Meditative Approaches”: The Evolution of Yanshou’s Image as Harmonizer
Author 柳幹康 (著)=Yanagi, Mikiyasu (au.)
Source 佛光學報=Fo Guang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Volumen.1 新1卷
Pages225 - 252
Publisher Url
Location宜蘭縣, 臺灣 [I-lan hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword永明延寿=永明延壽=Yongming Yanshou; 宗鏡録=宗鏡錄=Zongjing Lu; 教禅一致=教禪一致=the Unity of Doctrinal and Meditative Approaches; 禅教一致=禪教一致=the Unity of Meditative and Doctrinal Approaches; 覚範慧洪=覺範慧洪=Juefan Huihong; 中峰明本=Zhongfeng Mingben; 憨山徳清=Hanshan Deqing; 雍正帝=雍正皇帝=Yongzheng Emperor
Abstract 本論文は、調停者としての延寿像の変遷をたどることで、彼に「教禅一致」というイメージがどのように付与されたのかを解明する。延寿を直接知る賛寧と道原がそれぞれ編んだ延寿伝、および延寿の没後百年あまり後に慧洪が記した延寿伝のいずれにも、延寿が教と禅を統合したという話は全く見えない。皇帝によって教宗が禅宗の上に据えられる元代になると、当時を代表する禅僧明本により、延寿が教と禅の調停を果たしたという見解が提示された。ただし明本は「教禅一致」という言葉そのものは用いていない。仏教復興期の明末になると明末四大高僧のひとり徳清は、延寿の主著『宗鏡録』により教と禅が統合されたという理解を明確に示した。ただし徳清によれば、『宗鏡録』は教と禅のみでなく、仏教内部のあらゆる説を統合する仏教再興の書であるという。清代になると天下の最高権力者である雍正帝により、延寿の思想は国家の統合と安寧に資すると評価され、延寿と『宗鏡録』はそれぞれ「震旦第一の導師」「震旦宗師著述中第一の妙典」と絶賛された。かくして当時における延寿の地位は不動のものとなった。

本文通過追溯作為調和者的永明延壽(904-976)形象之變遷來釐清延壽究竟是如何漸漸被賦予「教禪一致」這種看法。略分以下四個階段:(1) 從認識延壽的贊寧(919-1002)和道原(生歿年不詳)各自所編的延壽傳乃至百餘年後北宋禪僧慧洪(1071-1128)所撰的延壽傳記,都看不到所謂「教禪一致」這種提法。(2) 到了元代,皇帝決定把教宗(天臺、慈恩、賢首等)列於禪宗之上,當時著名禪僧中峰明本(1263-1323)提出延壽調和了教與禪這一見解,但他並沒有用「教禪一致」一詞。(3) 到了明末佛教復興時期,四大高僧之一憨山德清(1546-1623)明確提出,延壽的代表作《宗鏡錄》是融合教禪之書。不過,德清認為《宗鏡錄》不僅僅體現了「教禪一致」思想,也是一部融合了佛教內部一切所說的中興之書。(4) 到了清代,掌握國家最高權力的雍正皇帝(1722-1735在位)讚歎延壽是「震旦第一導師」,《宗鏡錄》是一部「震旦宗師著述中第一妙典」。雍正高度評價延壽的思想利於帝國的統一與安定。 從此,延壽的這種形象被確立而不可動搖。

In this paper I will clarify how the image of “unifier of doctrinal and meditative approaches” was bestowed upon Yongming Yanshou (904-976) and how it changed throughout history. There are four stages in brief, as follows:
First, I will examine two biographies of Yanshou written by the figures Zanning (919-1002) and Daoyuan (dates unknown) who knew Yanshou directly and another biography written a little over a century after his death by Huihong (1071-1128). In none of these three early biographies is Yanshou regarded as a unifier of meditative and doctrinal approaches.
Secondly, moving on to the Yuan dynasty, where the emperors were in support of placing doctrinal traditions (such as the Tiantai, Consciousness-Only, or Huayan traditions) as superior to the Chan (or meditation) tradition, the famous Chan monk Zhongfeng Mingben (1263-1323) put forth the idea that Yanshou had harmonized doctrinal and meditative approaches but did not use the term “unity of doctrinal and meditative approaches.”
Third, in the late Ming dynasty, during the revival period of Buddhism, one of the four most eminent monks of that time Hanshan Deqing (1546-1623) put forth the idea that Yanshou’s representative work, Zongjing Lu (Record of the Axiom Mirror), is a work that unifies doctrinal and meditative approaches. However, Hanshan believed that the Zongjing Lu not only reflected the ideology of the “unity of doctrinal and meditative approaches,” but was also a work which syncretized all Buddhist teachings in a revival.
Fourth, by the Qing dynasty the most powerful figure the nation, the Yongzheng emperor (who reigned from 1722-1735), praised Yanshou as the “greatest master in China,” and the Zongjing Lu as the “greatest work ever written by a Chinese master.” The Yongzheng emperor’s high evaluation of Yanshou was beneficial to the peace and unification of the empire and at that time definitively solidified Yanshou’s status.
In conclusion, the image of Yanshou in each era is deeply reflective of the background of the Buddhist communities throughout history as Yanshou’s image as a unifier of doctrinal and meditation approaches was born in the Yuan and fully established by the end of the Ming。
Table of contents論文要旨 225
中文摘要 226
Abstract 227
一、はじめに 229
二、宋:心宗による三宗の調停者 231
三、元:教と禅の統合者 233
四、明:「教禅一致」と仏教の再編者 237
五、清:中国随一の導師 242
六、むすび 246
略号 248
引用書目 249
ISSN24143006 (P)
Created date2016.06.23
Modified date2022.03.17

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