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論《維摩詰經》之「罪性觀」-以天台智者大師觀點為主=On the Nature of Transgression in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra: Based on the Interpretation of Master Zhiyi of the Tiantai School
Author 釋智定 (著)=高御曦 (au.)
Date2015
Pages247
Publisher法鼓佛教學院
Publisher Url http://www.dila.edu.tw/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type博碩士論文=Thesis and Dissertation
Language中文=Chinese
Degreemaster
Institution法鼓文理學院
Department佛教學系
Advisor釋果鏡
Publication year103
Keyword維摩詰經=Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra; 罪性; 天台智者大師=the Master Zhiyi of the Tiantai School; 觀無生懺法=contemplation on the way to uproot wrong views; 觀罪性空=contemplation on the emptiness of the nature of transgression; nature of transgression
Abstract本論文共分七章,探討《維摩詰經》〈弟子品第三〉,佛陀派遣第八位弟子優波離尊者向維摩詰菩薩問疾時,優波離尊者自述「不能往詣維摩詰菩薩問疾之原因」,總計經文約四百字。經意係著重在:何者是維摩詰菩薩教導優波離尊者之「直除滅罪法」?
維摩詰菩薩教導優波離尊者之「直除滅罪法」是觀「罪性不在內、不在外、不在中間」,智者大師闡釋此懺法為「觀無生懺法」和「觀罪性空」,其法義深奧難解。為瞭解《維摩詰經》中維摩詰菩薩對罪性之觀點及其法義,乃以漢傳佛教古德之相關注疏為主要文獻,但較多引證隋.智者大師之闡釋,進行探討。因為古德對本經之闡釋,大都引自印度傳入之漢譯經論,諸等皆是佛陀之聖言量,依循修行能成就聖道。因此,將本論文題目定為:論《維摩詰經》之「罪性觀」-以天台智者大師觀點為主。
智者大師所論述的懺悔滅罪方法分事懺和理懺。「觀無生懺法」和「觀罪性空」是理懺,也是本經所探討的「直除滅罪法」,此懺法能滅所有諸罪。關於如何「觀無生」和「觀罪性空」懺悔?請參見本論文第六章。
本論文最後建議法鼓山僧團,在現有的事懺偈頌梵唄上加入理懺之偈頌,合成一首懺悔梵唄發行(請參見第七章),對行者之懺悔業障及止觀修行應能有所助益。

This thesis is divided into seven chapters, mainly focusing on the third chapter of the Chinese Buddhist scripture which translated by Kumārajīva (鳩摩羅什). According to the third chapter, the Disciples'' Reluctance to Visit Vimalakirti of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra (維摩詰經), ven. Upali is one of the Buddha’s disciples, and the eighth to be assigned to visit Vimalakīrti, who was sick at that time. Ven. Upali said to the Buddha about the reasons why he could not visit Vimalakīrti. The whole paragraph is approximately 400 Chinese words. The emphasis of the text lied in the direct method of repentance that can purify one’s transgressions, which was taught him by Vimalakīrti.
The Direct method of repentance taught was to contemplate that all transgression are neither inside, outside, nor in between. Master Zhiyi of the Tiantai School interpreted it “Contemplation on the way to purify wrong views (觀無生懺法)”and“Contemplation on the emptiness of the nature of transgression (觀罪性空)”,which was very difficult to understand. In order to realize the meanings the nature of transgressions in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra, this thesis quoted from commentaries written by Chinese Masters, with focus on the interpretation by Master Shi’i. Historical Buddhist master’s explanations on the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra, were mainly based on the citations from the Chinese scriptures that were translated from Indian Buddhist sutras. Containing Buddha’s teachings, through which enlightenment is possible if we can follow and practice them. Therefore, I present the topic of this thesis as- “On the Nature of Transgression in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra: Based on the Interpretation of Master Zhiyi of the Tiantai School”.
According to the interpretations by Master Zhiyi, the method of repentance can be divided into “Repentance through realization of the truth (理懺)” and “Repentance through ritual performance (事懺)”. The repentance by “Contemplating on the way to uproot wrong views (觀無生懺法)” and“Contemplating on the emptiness of the nature of transgression (觀罪性空)”are the methods of“Repentance through realization of the truth (理懺)”,which is exactly the topic of thesis paper “The direct method of repentance”. This is the method that can purify all transgressions. As for the methods of “Contemplation on the way to uproot wrong views” and“Contemplation on the emptiness of the nature of transgression”, please refer to the sixth chapter.
As a conclusion, the author recommends that the Dharma Drum Mountain Sangha (DDM) to include the chanting of “Repentance through realization of the truth” into the chanting of “Repentance through ritual performance”. With additional melody and make them available for DDM devotees in the form of musical recording. It may helpful to purify the transgression and to benefit the practice of meditation for all practitioners.
Table of contents摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
目次 v
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 問題意識之形成 1
一、參加《水懺》法會 1
二、禮拜《大悲懺》 4
三、聽聞法師宣講《維摩詰經》之啟示 5
四、修學「天台止觀」 6
第二節 研究動機及目的 6
第三節 文獻探討 7
一、古德對《維摩詰經》之相關注疏 8
二、當代學者的研究成果回顧 8
三、小結 14
第四節 研究方法及範圍 15
一、研究方法 15
二、研究範圍 17
第五節 論文章節安排 18
第二章 《維摩詰經》在中國漢地之傳譯 20
第一節 《維摩詰經》在漢傳佛教史上的地位 20
第二節 現存《維摩詰經》漢譯本之譯者探討 22
一、吳.支謙譯《佛說維摩詰經》 23
二、後秦.鳩摩羅什譯《維摩詰所說經》 24
三、唐.玄奘譯《說無垢稱經》 27
第三節 現存《維摩詰經》梵文本與漢譯本「品別」及「品名」之比較 30
第四節 現存《維摩詰經》漢譯本有關「罪性」部分之經文比較 31
一、支謙、羅什和玄奘所譯《維摩詰經》中有關「罪性」之經文 31
二、分析 33
第五節 本章總結 34
第三章 維摩詰菩薩在《維摩詰經》中之地位 36
第一節 漢譯《維摩詰經》得「無生忍」和「無生法忍」譯詞之探討 37
一、《維摩詰經》梵文「無生忍」、「無生法忍」之譯文比較表 38
二、漢傳佛教古德對《維摩詰經》得「無生忍」和「無生法忍」之闡釋 43
三、古德對《維摩詰經》「無生忍」和「無生法忍」注疏引據溯源 61
四、本節小結 78
第二節 維摩詰菩薩果位之探討 79
一、維摩詰菩薩果德之探討 81
二、維摩詰菩薩為何居毘耶離城? 84
三、維摩詰已得無生法忍,為何仍現身有疾? 85
四、佛陀為何遣諸聲聞弟子和菩薩往詣維摩詰菩薩問疾? 90
第三節 佛陀為何先遣諸聲聞後遣菩薩往詣維摩詰菩薩問疾? 93
一、羅什及僧肇等之觀點 94
二、隋.慧遠撰《維摩義記》 95
三、智者大師觀點 96
第四節 本章總結 99
第四章 《維摩詰經》之「罪性觀」法義探討 101
第一節 導言 101
一、源起 101
二、《水懺》「觀罪性空」與本經「罪性觀」經文部分雷同之探討 102
三、本章「罪性觀」法義探討方式 103
第二節《維摩詰經》之「罪性觀」論題探討 104
一、二位比丘犯律行為何向優波離尊者請問「解疑悔法」? 104
二、優波離尊者向二位比丘所示教的「如法解說」出罪方法,內涵如何? 106
三、維摩詰菩薩為何呵斥優波離尊者是「重增二位比丘罪」? 107
四、維摩詰菩薩所云「當直除滅,勿擾其心」係何所指? 109
五、維摩詰菩薩如何向優波離尊者示教「觀『罪性空』」懺悔滅罪法? 112
六、二位比丘所犯之戒最終有否滅罪? 132
第三節 本章總結 134
一、小結本章「罪性觀」經文重要意涵 135
二、尚待探討之論題 136
第五章 持戒清淨與懺悔之關係 137
第一節 導言 137
第二節《釋禪波羅蜜次第法門》和《維摩經文疏》之論戒 139
一、佛教行者「有戒無戒」之探討 139
二、行者「持戒與犯戒」之探討 142
第三節《摩訶止觀》之論戒 146
一、從「事」義上論持戒 146
二、論「理觀」觀心持戒 155
三、持戒之果報如何? 158
四、《摩訶止觀》論犯戒 159
第四節 《法華玄義》對持、犯戒之探討 161
一、出家修行有何利益 162
二、《法華玄義》「護他十戒」重要觀點 164
第五節 論題分析 170
一、十種戒名及其闡釋比較 171
二、分析 174
第六節 本章總結 176
一、事戒和理戒之區別 176
二、綜合智者大師諸部著作對十種戒之判位 177
三、行者從凡夫到成佛之持戒 179
四、本章研析心得 180
第六章 《維摩詰經》之「罪性觀」在止觀上之運用 183
第一節 導言 183
第二節 略述漢傳大乘佛教的懺悔思想和方法 184
一、《維摩經文疏》等之三種懺悔法 185
二、《摩訶止觀》之「理懺、事懺」懺悔法 188
三、探討分析 197
第三節 論「三觀」滅罪之內涵及其觀法 202
一、釋「三觀」之名 203
二、「次第三觀」之內涵 205
三、「別相三觀」如何次第修? 206
四、如何修「一心三觀」懺悔滅罪? 217
第四節 「理懺」法在止觀上之運用 219
一、「觀無生懺法」和「觀罪性空」懺法之會異 219
二、「觀無生懺法」及「觀罪性空懺法」在止觀上之運用 222
第五節 論題探討 224
一、大乘除前文所述之懺法外,是否尚有其他懺法? 224
二、凡夫犯重罪,行「觀無生懺法」,可以滅罪清淨嗎? 225
三、行者禮佛拜懺,能否併行觀懺? 230
四、凡夫行者勤思惟過錯拜懺,能否成就聖道? 230
第六節 本章總結 232
第七章 結論與建議 234
參考文獻 238
一、佛教經典 238
二、中外文佛學專著 240
三、碩博士論文 243
四、網頁 244
附錄《維摩詰經》之「罪性觀」語體釋 245
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Created date2016.08.18
Modified date2016.08.18



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