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古代暹羅墮和羅王國的大乘佛教建國信仰
Author 古正美 (著)=Ku, Cheng-mei (au.)
Source 饒宗頤國學院院刊=Bulletin of the Jao Tsung-I Academy of Sinology
Volumen.3 第43號
Date2016.06
Pages241 - 286
Publisher香港浸會大學饒宗頤國學院
Publisher Url http://jas.hkbu.edu.hk/
LocationHong Kong [香港]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword墮和羅; 古代暹羅; 佛教建國信仰; 龍樹; 支提信仰 / 彌勒信仰佛教造像
Abstract墮和羅(Dvāravatī,6–11 世紀)是猛族人(Mons)在古代暹羅(Siam)建國的一個國家,並有長期發展佛教的歷史。泰國學者地答.沙拉雅(Didha Saraya)將墮和羅的佛教分為兩種:(1)民間信仰的佛教,及(2)帝王信仰的佛教,並認為兩種都是小乘上座部(the Theravāda)的佛教信仰。地答.沙拉雅說,墮和羅的帝王能同時以:(1)「菩薩」或「聖神彌勒」(Phra Śrī Āriyamettrai)及(2)「轉輪王」(cakravartin)的面貌統治國家。從墮和羅帝王能以轉輪王的姿態統治天下此事,我們知道,墮和羅有長期使用「佛教轉輪王建國信仰」建國的歷史。所謂「轉輪王建國信仰」,即是法國學者戈岱司(G. Coedes)所言的「佛教帝王建國信仰」(Buddhist conception of royalty)。帝王使用轉輪王建國信仰時,必會用大乘佛教信仰作為其建國的方法及內容。因轉輪王建國信仰是一種大乘在歷史上奠立的治國術或政治傳統。筆者在此文中即要用大乘佛經及墮和羅的造像等證據證明墮和羅所發展的佛教,並不是小乘上座部的佛教,而是龍樹(Nāgārjuna)在 2 世紀後半葉於南印度奠立的大乘佛教建國信仰或「支提信仰」(the caitya worship)。
The kingdom of Dvāravatī (6–11th century) established in ancient Siam had a long history of promoting Buddhism. Thai scholar Didha Saraya
classifies Dvāravatī’s Buddhism into two types: (1) folk Buddhism, and (2) Buddhism of royalty. Where the Buddhism of royalty is concerned, she suggests that a Dvāravatī king can simultaneously take the disguises of a “Bodhisattva” or “Phra Śrī Āriyamettrai” (the divine and saintly Maitreya) and a cakravartin, a “king of kings” who rules in accordance with Theravāda Buddhism. However, according to my research, a king with these two features can also be found in the caitya worship which belonged to a conception of Mahāyāna Buddhist kingship. This conception was established by Nāgārjuna in the late 2nd century A. D. in South India. I use Mahāyāna Buddhist texts and Dvāravatī Buddhist sculptures to prove that the Buddhism promoted in Dvāravatī belonged to the conception of Mahāyāna Buddhist kingship founded by Nāgārjuna.
Table of contents一、墮和羅在歷史上建國的名稱及地點 242
二、目前學者對墮和羅出土佛教帝號的瞭解 244
(一)墮和羅帝王的轉輪王號 244
(二)墮和羅帝王的聖神彌勒號 246
(三)武則天的聖神皇帝號 248
三、龍樹奠立的支提信仰內容及造像 249
(一)龍樹奠立的支提信仰內容 249
(二)龍樹時代的支提建造情形 253
四、小乘佛教使用聖神彌勒號的淵源及歷史 255
(一)錫蘭及緬甸蒲甘的例子 255
(二)《入法界品》的彌勒菩薩信仰 260
五、墮和羅的造像—支提信仰的造像 263
(一)舍衛城大神變 265
(二)彌勒佛王坐宮中問政圖 274
(三)象徵轉輪王身份的飾物 275
(1)轉輪王座 275
(2)白拂及白蓋 277
(四)彌勒佛王新像 277
(五)墮和羅的兩種彌勒佛王新像 279
(六)墮和羅的其他造像 281
結論 284



ISSN23109297
Hits284
Created date2019.07.02
Modified date2019.07.25



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