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中國佛教授記思想與授記圖像=Vyākaraṇa in Chinese Buddhism and Images with Vyākaraṇa Stories in Chinese Art
Author 楊郁如 (著)=Yang, Yu-ju (au.)
Source 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism Studies
Pages1 - 36
Publisher Url
Location新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword授記=Vyākaraṇa; 記說=prophecy; 燃燈佛授記=Dipamkara Buddha’s Prophecy; 傳法祖師像=Maitreya-vyakaraṇa; 彌勒授記像=patriarchs
Abstract 由於授記中「所證所生」的內容伴隨大乘佛教的興起而逐漸偏重於未來佛果的授記,因此一般都認為授記即是「將來成佛」的預言記說,授記圖像也以燃燈佛授記最為人知。但從中國現存的佛教造像與石窟壁畫來看,有關授記的造像題材卻不僅只於授記成佛一種;而這些造像題材中,如傳法祖師像、彌勒授記像等並未見於印度、中亞地區。此外,考諸史集,中國歷史上多次出現依託「授記」之說而生的造聖(轉輪聖王)、造佛事件;這些事件的一再出現,顯見授記之說在中國具有相當的影響及特殊的發展。從授記的原始意涵到大乘佛教中特別重視的授記成佛思想,中日學者已經有諸多探討並且有系統性的專著;但是授記在中國的發展,以及受到授記思想影響而出現的特殊現象,卻尚未得到關注。由於授記是原始佛教的九分教中唯一形成特殊思想體系的一支,其發展也體現出佛教在不同時期、不同地區的一些思想變化;因此,檢視各類授記題材在佛教藝術中的興衰,也提供一個不同的進途以探究不同時、地的文化、思想與佛教的互相影響,同時也可以從中證知中國佛教對授記內容的認知或偏重與印度佛教的異同。

“Vyākaraṇa” means explanation, answer or declaration in the primary, and finally turns into a specific ideology interconnected with the prophecy that one should gain Buddhahood in the future. In the Northern Wei Dynasty, there are lots of sculptures and murals about the most famous one, the Jataka tale of Dipamkara Buddha’s Prophecy. But this is not the only one subject of vyākaraṇa stories in ancient Chinese art. On the other hand, there are some subjects didn’t come into public notice, which are only found in China, such as Maitreya-vyakaraṇa and the patriarchs. Furthermore, according to historical records, we can see the influence of vyākaraṇa ideology not only in religion but also in politics, which shows the differences between the vyākaraṇa ideology in India and in China.
Table of contents一、「授記」的語意演變與大乘佛教的授記思想 4
二、漢譯論典對授記的定義及授記思想的開展 7
三、漢譯經典中的「授記」 13
(一)法義的解說: 16
(二)本生授記: 17
(三)預言授記: 17
1、死之預言: 17
2、預言命終生處: 17
3、預言未來事跡: 17
(四)證德的記說: 18
1、自記說: 18
2、為他記說: 18
四、中國的佛教授記圖像 19
(一)授記成佛 19
1、燃燈佛授記像 19
2、彌勒經變授記像︰ 21
3、法華經變授記像: 23
4、思益梵天請問經變授記像 25
5、尊勝經變授記像 26
6、誓願畫(本生授記) 26
(二)授記傳法 27
1、傳法祖師像 27
(1)河南安陽寶山靈泉寺大住聖窟 27
(2)沁陽懸谷山石窟 28
(3)龍門石窟擂鼓台中洞、看經寺洞 29
2、世尊靈山傳法圖 29
(三)授記為轉輪聖王 30
五、結語 31

ISSN18133649 (P)
Created date2020.03.25
Modified date2020.03.25

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