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唐宋佛教居士形象的兩個人物 -王維與蘇軾=Wang Wei and Su Shi: Two Images of Lay Buddhism in the Tang and Song Dynasties
Author 蕭麗華 (著)=Hsiao, Li-hua (au.)
Source 佛光學報=Fo Guang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Volumen.2 新4卷
Date2018.07
Pages203 - 246
Publisher佛光大學佛教研究中心
Publisher Url https://cbs.fgu.edu.tw/
Location宜蘭縣, 臺灣 [I-lan hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為佛光大學中國文學與應用學系教授
Keyword王維=Wang Wei; 蘇軾=Su Shi; 居士=laity; 佛教文化=Buddhist culture; 《維摩詰經》=Vimalakīrti sūtra
Abstract 中國佛教的發展,到《維摩結經》的翻譯才出現大乘佛教的居士概念。此後居士意涵落實在從僧肇注《維摩詰經》引鳩摩羅什曰:「外國白衣多財富樂者,名為居士。」到慧遠《維摩義記》說:「居士有二:一、廣積資產,居財之士,名為居士。二、在家修道,居家道士,名為居士」的發展過程。
居士文化到唐宋以後以文學家最為突出,王維與蘇軾可以說是閑於經集諸部內典,並敏於禪修內證,將體悟用文學形式表現出來的居士文學家。王維以維摩詰長者之名為自身德號,是以宰官身統「七財」、「十德」為終極目的,所展現的居士風,明顯是南北禪交界之間的清淨法,還大量偏向北禪「住心看淨」的清修。蘇軾自證宿慧,以宰官身為佛教外護,亦且「殷勤稽首維摩詰」,學大乘菩薩道學佛證脫。王維的居士行是鳩摩羅什「白衣多財富樂」和慧遠「居財之士」與「居家道士」的融合,偏向北宗禪的「住心看淨」的清修。蘇軾以自覺宿慧之根器,融合雲門、臨濟不二門,於行住坐臥中掌握「一念清淨」的平常心。泯除「白衣多財富樂」、「居財之士」與「居家道士」的形象,使居士形象完全在自心之中。
本文以居士佛教為考察,突出《維摩詰經》對中國文人居士的影響,並以佛典語境勾勒成為佛教居士的兩種要義-「七財長者」與「十德長者」,論王維與蘇軾的居士典範意涵。全文不僅旨在呈現唐宋兩種典型的居士形象,為中國居士文化的演進提供兩個時代側影;更重要的,是突顯《維摩詰所說經》居士意涵所呈現的深刻旨意,如何藉文人形象展現在器世間,成為在家學佛之典範。

In the history of the development of Chinese Buddhism, the concept of the Mahayana lay Buddhist first emerged in the Chinese translation of the Vimalakīrti nirdeśa. Based on materials pertaining to lay Buddhism, this article highlights the influence of the Vimalakīrti nirdeśa on Chinese literati. In this paper, Buddhist texts are roughly categorized into two types of lay Buddhism, "seven treasures" and "ten virtues", taking Wang Wei and Su Shi as models respectively.
Literati were the most prominent lay Buddhists in the Tang and Song Dynasties. Wang Wei and Su Shi were familiar with Buddhist literature and proficient in meditation, expressing their realizations in the format of literature as lay scholars. Wang Wei, who gave himself the courtesy name Weimojie (Vimalakīrti), unifies the "seven wealth" and "ten virtues" models of cultivation. His style clearly falls between the Northern and Southern Chan schools at the junction with his pure Chan.
By contrast, Su Shi with his inherent wisdom, mixes the styles of Yunmen and Linji, manifesting a pure ordinary mind in his daily life. These are two models of the image of laymen among Chinese literati.
Table of contents一、前言 207
二、佛典語境中的居士 210
(一)「居士」意涵的演進 210
(二)成為佛教居士的要義 212
1.「居財之士」的第一要義:七財長者 212
2.「居財之士」的第二要義:十德長者 215
三、王摩詰居士形象 221
四、蘇東坡居士形象 229
五、結論 241
ISSN24143006 (P)
Hits521
Created date2020.04.13
Modified date2020.04.13



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