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《維摩詰經》的身份話語:一個文學社會學的解讀 - 以Ratnâkara的身份敘事為例-=A Literary Sociological Interpretation of Identity in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra: The Narrated Identity of Ratnâkara
Author 萬金川 (著)=Wan, Chin-chuan (au.)
Source 佛光學報=Fo Guang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Volumen.1 新5卷
Pages1 - 74
Publisher Url
Location宜蘭縣, 臺灣 [I-lan hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword《維摩詰經》=Vimalakīrtinirdeśa; 大乘運動=Mahayana movement; 敘事批評=narrative criticism; 社會身份=social identity; 族別與地望=ethnicity and social status
Abstract 如同其他大乘經典的身世之謎一樣,有關《維摩詰經》結集的年代與地區,乃至其社會狀況與法政體制之類的成立背景,我們至今仍然缺乏信實可靠的外部資料來說明此中的種種問題。儘管如此,學者之間仍然嘗試通過這部經典本身所提供的內部信息而著手這一類問題的相關研究。譬如Lamotte 1962/1976便透過「來源批評」(Source Criticism)而詳盡地指出了這部經典各方各面的思想淵源;河野訓2006也試圖藉由「編輯批評」(Redaction Criticism)而嘗試比對出《維摩詰經.法供養品》與《正法華經.藥王菩薩品》之間可能存在的採編關係。此外,辛嶋靜志2015更隨順「形式批評」(Form Criticism)而確切指出:這部經典早期的語言形態明顯有著中期印度語西北方言乃至犍陀羅語的若干特徵。然而,幾乎除了中村元1966曾經就這部經典的敘事內容而從經濟形態與政治體制兩個面向,敏銳地指出《維摩詰經》的成立背景與《法華經》之間有著彼此共通的社會基礎。但是,幾乎從此之後便極少見到有以社會學視角而審視其結集背景的著作出現。有鑑於此,本文不揣謭陋而嘗試藉由《維摩詰經》有關Ratnâkara這個人物的身份敘事,而著手分析這部經典敘事內容裡對這位人物所進行的身份賦予,並試圖指出其人所具有的「族別身份」、「地望身份」、「年齡身份」與「宗教身份」等四種社會身份與佛教史上的大乘運動之間,可能有其密切的關連,而其中尤以人物的「年齡身份」甚少為研究大乘運動社會背景的學者所留意,雖然Ratnâkara的「族別身份」與「地望身份」所折射出來的商業經濟與共和政體,是促動《維摩詰經》問世的社會基礎,而這一點也早已經由中村元1966明快地加以指出了。至於Ratnâkara的「宗教身份」-亦即菩薩,在波瀾壯闊的大乘運動裡所代表的具體意義,更是毋庸贅言。

Like most Mahayana sutras, the origins of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa are unknown. We still lack reliable external evidence about its compilation date and region, as well as its social and political background. Despite this, scholars have attempted to answer these questions with internal evidence from the sutra. For example, Lamotte 1962 uses the method of source criticism to thoroughly analyze the origins of the sutra’s various doctrinal concepts. Satoshi Kawano 2006 uses redaction criticism in an attempt to identify possible editorial connections between the “Dharma Offering” chapter of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa and the “Medicine King Bodhisattva” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Seishi Karashima 2015 uses form criticism to show with certainty that the sutra’s Indic linguistic features match those of Middle Indic, northwestern Prakrit, and even Gāndhārī. Uniquely, Hajime Nakamura 1966 uses a narrative analysis of social and political content to clearly demonstrate that the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa shares common social foundations with the Lotus Sutra. However, after Nakamura, studies employing a sociological perspective to examine the context in which the text was compiled are extremely rare. In view of this, this paper attempts to analyze the narrative identity of the figure of Ratnâkara in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa by focusing on his ethnic, social, age, and religious aspects of identity, and their potential relationship with the historical Mahayana movement. Of these, age identity is rarely remarked upon by scholars studying the social background of the Mahayana movement. Although Ratnâkara’s ethnic and social identities reflect the mercantile economy and republican polity which led to the production of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa, this point has been clearly demonstrated in Nakamura 1966. Ratnâkara’s religious identity is that of a bodhisattva, whose importance in the Mahayana movement needs no further elaboration.
Table of contents略語表 5
一、對勘的憂鬱 6
【Vkn I-7】 6
【Vkn II-1】 7
二、互文的快感 17
(一)族別與地望身份的歷史印記 21
(二)赤子之心的年齡身份 32
三、易位的歡愉 42
(一)垂髫已杳稚顏空 43
(二)長者崢嶸居士在 50
ISSN24143006 (P)
Created date2020.04.20
Modified date2020.04.20

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