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印順法師對《金剛經》的詮釋 ── 兼與智顗、吉藏、智儼、窺基之比較=Ven. Yin-shun's Interpretation on Diamond Sutra ── And Comparisons with Zhi-yi, Ji-zang, Zhi-yan and Kui-ji’s interpretations
Author 邱敏捷 =Chiu, Min-chieh
Source 法印學報=Journal of Dharma Seals
Volumen.9
Date2018.12
Pages53 - 82
Publisher財團法人弘誓文教基金會
Publisher Url https://www.hongshi.org.tw/
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:國立臺南大學國語文學系教授
Professor, Department of Chinese, National University of Tainan.
Keyword印順法師=Ven.Yin-shun; 《金剛經》=Diamond Sutra; 二道=Two Ways; 五種菩提=Five Bodhi
Abstract初期大乘佛教「般若法門」及其主要經典《般若經》是佛教重要思想內涵。在《般若經》一系列經典中,最初為姚秦‧鳩摩羅什所譯之《金剛經》,在中國佛教界普遍流行,對中國禪宗影響深遠。《金剛經》並為天臺宗智顗、三論宗吉藏、華嚴宗智儼、法相宗窺基等所重視,然該經文義深遠,印順法師認為前人多「泛論空談」,難於掌握其「宗要」。對於《金剛經》之研究,印順法師主要有《般若經講記》、《印度佛教思想史》與《初期大乘佛教之起源與開展》,而智顗《金剛般若經疏》、吉藏《金剛般若疏》、智儼《佛說金剛般若波羅蜜經略疏》、窺基《金剛般若經贊述》等皆屬重要註本。對於《金剛經》的成立,智顗與吉藏概引用《仁王經》,而未有進一步的討論,印順法師則提出「最早也是『中品般若』集成的時代」。對於該經之宗要,智顗徵引《大智度論》指出「二道」,而吉藏認定是「知因果」,智儼以「實相般若、觀照般若、文字般若」為宗要,窺基雖援採無著「金剛杵」之喻,然對於宗要無特別的論述。至於《金剛經》強調從發心而直到究竟菩提,歸宗於「無相法門」的要義,各家皆賦予一定質量的解析。不同於前賢,印順法師貫通《大智度論》「二道即五種菩提」的成佛之道,以「無上遍正覺」與「二道即五種菩提」為《金剛經》宗要。可以說,印順法師的論述較諸前賢更為深切詳盡。

The Teaching of Prajna in the Early Mahayana Buddhism, and its main sutras: Prajnaparamita sutras, are the essential contents of Buddhist ideology. Among the Prajnaparamita sutras, Diamond Sutra, which was first translated by Kumarajiva in Yaoqin Period (384-417 AD) and later became widespread in the Chinese Buddhist community, has great influence on Chan School in China. Diamond Sutra is highly valued by Zhi-yi of Tiantai School, Ji-zang of Three Treatises School, Zhi-yan of Hua-yan School, and Kui-ji of Dharma Characteristics School. However, the content of the sutra is very deep and profound. Ven. Yin-shun considered most of the predecessors’ commentaries on the sutra were simply general discussions devoid of substantial content, and did not grasp the principle doctrine of the sutra. Ven. Yin-shun’s investigation and findings of the Diamond Sutra can be found in Record of Lecture on Prajna Sutras, History of Indian Buddhist Philosophy, and The Origin and Development of Early Mahayana Buddhism. Other important commentaries are such as: Zhi-yi’s Annotation of Diamond Prajna Sutra, Ji-zang’s Annotation of Diamond Prajna, Zhi-yan’s Brief Annotation of Diamond Prajnaparamita Sutra, and Kui-ji’s Praise and Exposition of Diamond Prajna Sutra.
Regarding the origination of Diamond Sutra, both Zhi-yi and Ji-zang simply quoted from the Sutra of Humane Kings without further discussion on it. Meanwhile, Ven. Yin-shun pointed out that “its earliest time should be during the period of completion of the Middle Level of Prajna Sutra.” About the principle doctrine of the sutra, Zhi-yi signified that it was the “Two Ways” with reference to the Mahaprajnaparamita Sastra, whereas Ji-zang asserted that it was the “Knowing cause and effect”, while Zhi-yan embraced the “(three kinds of wisdom:) wisdom knowing the characteristics of reality, wisdom gained through contemplation, and wisdom gained through language”. Though Kui-ji adopted the metaphor of "Vajra mallet" of Asanga, yet he did not have any particular commentary nor explanation on the doctrine of the sutra as well.
Every schools had unanimously contributed a degree of fine analyses and explanations on an emphasis of Diamond Sutra that, the process that begins with making an aspiration and towards the realization of ultimate enlightenment, is based on the Teaching of “Non-characteristics”. Unlike the great masters in the past, Ven. Yin-shun integrated the “Two Ways are the Five Bodhi” is the way to Buddhahood as being described in Mahaprajnaparamita Sastra, and showed that “Supreme Perfect Enlightenment (anuttara-samyak-sambodhi)” and “Two Ways are the Five Bodhi” are the principle doctrines of the Diamond Sutra. In conclusion, Yinshun’s commentary and explanation are deeper, more profound and more detailed than other great masters preceding him.
Table of contents一、前言 57
二、《金剛經》的成立 60
三、《金剛經》的宗要 66
(一)隋.智顗的「二道」說 66
(二)隋.吉藏的「知因果」說 69
(三)唐.智儼的「實相般若」、「觀照般若」與「文字般若」三項說 70
(四)唐.窺基的移植無著「金剛杵」之喻 71
(五)印順法師的「無上遍正覺」與「二道即五種菩提」說 74
四、結論 78
ISSN22241299 (P)
Hits331
Created date2020.06.12



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