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バルトリハリ著『ヴァーキヤパディーヤ』「関係詳解章」(52-88) とディグナーガ著『三時の考察』の比較研究(1)=A Comparative Study of Bhartrhari’s Chapter of “Saṃbandhasamuddeśa” (Verses 52-88) in Vākyapadīya and Dignāga’s Traikālyaparīkṣā(1)
Author 那須円照 (著)=Nasu, Ensho (au.)
Source インド学チベット学研究=Journal of Indian and Tibetan Studies=インドガク チベットガク ケンキュウ
Pages01 - 13
Publisher Url
Location京都, 日本 [Kyoto, Japan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword言語; 対象; 知識; 認識; 形象
Abstract本論攷は、文法学派のバルトリハリ著『ヴァーキヤパディーヤ』(Vākyapadīya) の「関係詳解章」(Saṃbandhasamuddeśa) 第52偈から第59偈までと、それに対するヘーラーラージャの注釈、さらに、仏教徒のディグナーガ著『三時の考察』(Traikālyaparīkṣā) 第1偈から第8偈までを比較し、そこに考察される諸問題を明らかにする。ディグナーガとバルトリハリの偈はほぼ一致するので、バルトリハリの見解を明らかにすることが中心となる。
以下、『ヴァーキヤパディーヤ』のテクストは[Iyer1963] を底本とし、他の刊本と比較検討した。ヘーラーラージャの注釈は[Iyer1963] を使用したが、[服部1961] が用いているベナレス本は参照できなかった。『三時の考察』のチベット語訳テクストは[Frauwallner1959] によった。

In this study, I examine the problems of existence and non-existence, true reality and verbal activities, and time theories by comparing “Saṃbandhasamuddeśa Chapter,” verses 52–88, in the Vākyapadīya by the Vedāntic Grammarian Bhartrhari, Helārāja’s commentary on Bhartrhari’s text, and a Buddhist logician Dignāga’s Traikālyaparīkṣā. The corresponding verses in Dignāga’s text are very similar to Bhartrhari’s, except a few minor points. Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to clarify Bhartrhari’s arguments.
According to Bhartrhari, unmanifested Brahman, which is singular and eternal, is the only true existence. Brahman manifests itself through the powers of verbal activities, ignorance, time, etc. However, these various phenomenal manifestations are simply products of imagination, and they are not real existences. For Bhartrhari, the real “existence,” which exists eternally, exists independently of other existences. Meanwhile, “non-existence,” which absolutely does not exist, is total nothingness. Therefore, non-existence cannot become a relative existence of the real existence. Although we think that existence and non-existence exist relatively, this is nothing but baseless verbal imagination, causal relationships, etc., cannot interfere with the true existent Brahman because they are simply products of imagination. The true existence is pure, while phenomenal, which are manifested verbally and temporally, are not real existences and are impure. This doctrine is different from the Sāṃkhya theory of pariṇāmavāda (the transformation theory) in which Sāṃkhya scholars maintain that the cause, which existed before transformation, and the effect, which exists after transformation, are identical.
Dignāga’s understanding in Traikālyaparīkṣā is roughly similar to Bhartrhari’s. However, for Dignāga, in the three time periods, an original vijñāna (consciousness), which exists before transformations, and phenomena, which come to exist after transformations, are both empty existences with no self-nature in a Buddhist sense. Only single pure consciousness is transformed into various impure phenomena by the power of ignorance. For Dignāga, all existences are empty and with no self-nature. Therefore his understanding is different from that of the Sāṃkhyas who understands that the same substance continues to exist before and after its transformation.
Table of contents1. 言葉と対象の関係に関する諸学説 1
2. 言語的認識は感官に欠陥がある人の認識のように虚妄である 4
3. 言葉と概念知と対象の関係 5
4. 愚者と智者の言語的認識における同等性と、言語活動を離れた超越的認識の可能性 6
5. 知識の清浄性の二段階 8
6. 外界の形象との結合による知識の迷乱と、本来の透明清浄性 9
7. 知識と対象の不浄性 10
8. 対象と語と知識の顚倒と、存在・非存在が無区別で顚倒していることと、最高の本質について 11
ISSN13427377 (P)
Created date2020.08.20
Modified date2020.08.20

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