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中日佛教文化交流中的《法華經》 — 從中古時期東亞佛教儀式文本的角度出發=Lotus Sutra in Buddhist Cultural Exchanges between China and Japan: East Asian Buddhist Ritual Texts in Middle Ages as Clues
Author 郭珮君 =Kuo, Pei-chun
Source 無盡燈:漢傳佛教青年學者論壇論文集
Date2018.09.01
Pages135 - 192
Publisher法鼓文化
Publisher Url http://www.ddc.com.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type專題研究論文=Research Paper
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為國立臺灣大學歷史學研究所博士候選人
Keyword《法華經》; 《法華傳記》; 《菅家文草》; 空海; Lotus Sutra; Fahuazhuanji; Kankebunso; Kūkai; Saichō
Abstract儀式是佛教文化中不可或缺的一部分,在寺院生活中,在國家儀禮中,儀式都具有強烈的規範性,不容輕易變動。對於平安時代的入唐僧而言,在漢地寺院中的生活經驗相當可貴,亦是學習漢傳佛教知識的過程中,最為具體,最具感受性的一環。同時,在異國社會中,某種程度上必然會認識到其對宗教的認識與想像。本文以文本中所見平安時代前期日本社會中對於佛教儀式的認識為核心,探討在平安時代天台宗、真言宗等所謂日本佛教建立的過程中,漢傳佛教的儀式成分具有什麼樣的重要性及意義。特別是,日本佛教具有強烈的護國色彩,亦受到以天皇家為核心的統治集團的重視。日本佛教儀式經常是以為國祈福為目的,甚至與國家儀式相結合。在日本佛教最重要的兩位奠基者,最澄與空海的著作中,留有不少和儀式相關的作品。這些作品,一部分屬於直接用於儀式進行的操作指南,一部分則是能夠反映儀式背景的篇章。其中,又以表白、願文兩類文體最能夠展現出日本佛教的特色。本文以《法華傳記》為核心,說明唐代信眾對於《法華經》的認識與期待,並透過對日本平安時代的漢詩文文集《菅家文草》,以及最澄、空海儀式相關著作資料的分析、比對,探究東亞文化交流中,佛教儀式文本中的《法華經》在異國所呈現的共相與殊相。值得注意的是,空海雖為日本真言宗奠基者,其作品中卻經常可見對於《法華經》的重視。無論是具有守護國家色彩的作品,抑或是為特定個人家族成員追善的願文中,都可以找到相關的內容。這樣的現象,一方面可作為空海個人對於顯密關係理解的依據,另一方面則可反映出日本佛教長期以來受到隋唐佛教影響而產生的時代背景。

Ritual is an important part of Buddhist Culture, and is strongly regulated both in Buddhist temples and in state ceremonies.
Daily life experiences in Tang temples were highly regarded for monks who travelled to Tang in Heian Japan, and the experiences also were the most remarkable part during their assimilating of Chinese Buddhist knowledge. Meanwhile, as foreign visitors, these Japanese monks were also acute at the image of Tang Buddhism. This article focuses on the understanding of Buddhist ritual in early Heian period, and reveals the importance of Chinese ritual during the construction of Tendai and Shingon Buddhism. Japanese Buddhism is known for its state-protection tradition, and was highly respected by the Emperor-centered ruling class. That is, Japanese Buddhist ritual is usually state-protective, and combined with state
ceremonies. In both the greatest founders of Japanese Buddhism, Kukai and Saicho's works, many ritual related articles can be found. Some of them are manuals of rituals, while some of them are articles that reflect social background of the ritual. Within these works, hyobyak and ganmon are the most characteristic genres that illustrate the essential nature of Japanese Buddhism. Through the inspection of the Fahuazhuanji, this article explicates the general apprehension of Lotus Sutra in Tang, and further compares it with Kankebunso and the works of Kukai and Saicho, to provide the commonality and divergence of Lotus Sutra in Buddhist ritual texts in East Asian Buddhist cultural exchanges. Notably, while Kukai is the founder of Shingon Buddhism in Japan. Lotus Sutra is often highly worshipped in his works, both in state-protective texts and ganbun for family members. It is connected to Kukai's expertise in exoteric and esoteric Buddhism, and also related to a long term social background that Japanese Buddhism has been influenced by Sui and Tang Buddhism.


Table of contents一、前言 138
二、《法華傳記》中所見的漢地《法華經》信仰 142
(一)儀式性書寫《法華經》 144
(二)為亡者書寫、供養《法華經》 147
(三)《法華經》所生利益的專屬性 153
三、從《菅家文草》中的願文看平安時代《法華經》的流行 156
(一)國家層級對於《法華經》的受容 161
(二)私人法會中的《法華經》 165
四、從最澄與空海的願文看平安時代前期佛教儀式中的《法華經》 173
(一)天台宗最澄以《法華經》護國的詮釋 173
(二)真言宗空海《遍照發揮性靈集》中的《法華經》 178
五、結語 184
ISBN9789575987886 (平裝)
Hits270
Created date2020.09.15



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