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牛頭禪與曹溪禪關係之考察 ── 從胡適到印順=The Relationship between Nyioutou Zen and Ciaoxyi Zen ── From Hu Shi to Yin Shun
Author 邱敏捷 (著)=Chiu, Min-chieh (au.)
Source 慧燄薪傳 ── 徑山與中國禪宗文化國際學術研討會
Date2012.08
Pages106 - 113
Location杭州, 中國 [Hangzhou, China]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:國立臺南大學國語文學系教授
杭州徑山寺主辦
Keyword牛頭禪=Nyioutou Zen; 曹溪禪=Ciaoxyi Zen; 胡適=Hu Shi; 關口真大=Sekiguchi Shindai; 印順= Yin-Shun
Abstract近現代中日投入禪宗史研究的重要學者,對於早期禪宗牛頭禪與曹溪禪關係之考察多所著墨。胡適認為牛頭晚輩「硬派」法融為達摩第四代子孫;鈴木大拙與宇井伯壽肯定道信與法融之承襲;關口真大以為法融與道信的承接不清。對於道信與法融的師徒授受關係,柳田聖山不以為然,印順亦指出其傳承缺乏事實依據。
針對牛頭禪如何演變成曹溪禪,關口真大與印順皆就人物的往來脈絡論述之。從徑山法欽獲得國師的稱號與南陽慧忠之關係、鶴林玄素門人超岸得法於馬祖道一、牛頭慧忠弟子芙蓉太毓投馬祖道一門、徑山法欽門人伏牛自在與夾山如會嗣馬祖道一之法、徑山法欽門人天皇道悟參法馬祖道一與石頭希遷、馬祖道一門人西堂智藏禮徑山法欽、石頭希遷門人丹霞天然謁徑山法欽等,條理其概況。
考察牛頭禪與曹溪禪往來之人物,來的回去,去的不回,於是牛頭禪融入南宗禪;更嚴謹地說,是融入曹溪禪石頭宗一系。

In the mid-twentieth century, Zen history research became popular with scholars.
This began one of the most exciting Sino-Japanese exchanges in Buddhist history. One field that was particularly important to scholars was the relationship between early Nyioutou and Ciaoxyi Zen sects. Chinese scholar Hu Shi’s research was one of the most significant in this area. Probably his greatest work was in the discovery of Dao Xyian’s book, The Biographies of Eminent Monastics II, written in the Tang Dynasty and made no mention of the relationship between Nyioutou and Da Mo (Ciaoxyi) Zen. Japanese scholars Suzuki Daisetsu and Yujieng Boshou both believed Fa Riwueng was a disciple of Dao Xyien. Boshou even believed he had found evidence that cross-referenced this relationship. However, Japanese scholars Gwuankou Zhienda and Lyioutyian Shengshan both disputed the existence of this relationship. It was Master Yin-Shun’s research that finally confirmed there was no relationship between Nyioutou and Ciaoxyi Zen sects before Nyioutou Zen’s fifth generation.
With this confirmation of no relationship before Nyioutou Zen’s fifth generation, scholars now begged the question of why and when Nyioutou and Ciaoxyi sects merged. Japanese scholar Gwuankou Zhienda and Chinese Master Yin-Shun both research the exchanges and relationships that resulted in this merge. The beginnings can be found with Emperor Daizwueng asking his primary advisor Ciaoxyi Master Nanyiang Hwueizhwueng if Nyioutou Master Ginshan Faqyien could also become his advisor.
Then other relationships followed such as Nyioutou Master Hlyien Xyuanswu’s disciple Chaoan went to study Ciaoxyi philosophy with the prominent Master Mazwu Daoyi. Nyioutou Master Hwueighwueng’s Disciple Frwueng Xaiyu also became Master Mazwu Daoyi’s disciple. After that, Master Ginshan Faqyien’s disciples Fnyiou Zzai and Jyia Rhwuei went to study with Master Mazwu Daoyi. Ginshan Faqyien’s disciple Tyianhwuang Daowu visited Ciaoxyi Masters Mazwu Daoyi and Shtou Xyiqyian. Then Master Mazwu Daoyi’s disciple Xyitang Zhiziang went to study with Master Ginshan Faqyien and returned to his Ciaoxyi master shortly thereafter. Master Shtou Xyiqyian’s disciple Danxyia Tyian then visited Master Ginshan Faqyien and also returned to Master Shtou. This was followed by several other exchanges.
The demise of Nyioutou Zen was due to the fact that when Nyioutou disciples went to study with Ciaoxyi Zen Masters, they did not return. However, Ciaoxyi disciples would quickly return to their Masters after studying Nyioutou Zen for a short period. This resulted in the strengthening of Ciaoxyi and the demise Nyioutou Zen, which finally dissipated. It was concluded that and an association was formed with a combination of Nyioutou and Ciaoxyi Zen sects.
Table of contents一、前言
二、牛頭禪與曹溪禪的傳承關係
三、牛頭禪與曹溪禪人物的往來
四、結 語
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Created date2020.10.05
Modified date2020.10.06



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