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唐五代時期敦煌寺院經濟管理的民主色彩=The Democratic Style of the Economic Management of Dunhuang Temples during the Tang and Five Dynasties
Author 明成滿 (著)=Ming, Cheng-man (au.)
Source 敦煌研究=Dunhuang Research
Volumen.4 (總號=n.182)
Date2020
Pages89 - 97
Publisher敦煌研究編輯部
Publisher Url http://www.dha.ac.cn/
Location蘭州, 中國 [Lanzhou, China]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:淮陰師範學院馬克思主義學院
Keyword唐五代時期=Tang and Five Dynasties period; 敦煌= Dunhuang; 寺院經濟=economy of temples; 民主管理=democratic management
Abstract敦煌寺院經濟文書展示了當時敦煌寺院經濟管理的許多信息:全體僧眾行使經濟監督、審核權;沙彌可擔任寺院的重要經管人員直歲;敦煌寺院經濟實行集體管理;僧官任職須經僧眾民主推選;寺院僧官的辭職、免職也須經徒眾同意;當僧眾和都僧統的意見相左時,都僧統往往也尊重僧眾的意見;普通僧眾和依附階層可向僧官申訴以維護自己的經濟利益;僧官任職期限短,輪流替換。通過這些信息我們可知,敦煌寺院經濟管理具有明顯的民主色彩,也在很大程度上反映了當時全國其他地區寺院經濟管理的狀況。

The financial documents of Dunhuang Buddhist temples provide a lot of information about the economic management of these temples. All the monks of these temples had the right to examine or audit the economic records of the community, the finances of which were managed collectively rather than by a particular department. There was one position of acolyte that acted as a sort of financial administrator called zhisui( an official monastery title) that was elected by the community of monks, however. The organization of monastery administration, as well as official resignation and removal from posts, was often subject to the agreement of the monks, and even when the view of the monks differed from that of the dusengtong( the highest-ranking monastery official), the dusentong often chose to submit to the decision of the community. Each monk that was elected to an official position had a short tenure and the posts were held by turns. Finally, in the democratic spirit by which these religious communities were managed, ordinary monks of lower position had the right to appeal to the monk officials in order to maintain their own economic interests. To a large extent, the democratic style of administration in Dunhuang Buddhist temples reflects the economic management of other areas of the country at that time.
Table of contents一 普通僧眾參加寺院的經濟管理 90
(一)沙彌可擔任寺院的重要僧職人員———直歲 90
(二)全體僧眾行使經濟監督、審核權 90
二 敦煌寺院經濟的集體管理 91
三 僧官的任免須經僧眾同意 93
(一)僧官任職須經民主推選 93
(二)寺院僧官的辭職和免職也須經僧眾同意 94
(三)都僧統尊重普通僧眾的僧官選任意見 95
四 敦煌寺院經濟管理民主性的其它表現 95
(一)普通僧眾和依附階層可向僧官申訴以維護自己的經濟利益 95
(二)僧官任職期限短並輪流替換 96
結語 96
ISSN10004106 (P)
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Created date2020.11.13



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