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六朝佛法「殺生戒」與世教祠祀信仰的交涉=The Interplay between the Precept Forbidding Killing and the Rituals Associated with Mundane Teachings in Six Dynasties Buddhism
Author 紀志昌 (著)=Chi, Chih-chang (au.)
Source 漢學研究=Chinese Studies
Volumev.34 n.1
Pages61 - 94
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note作者單位:國立中山大學中國文學系副教授 Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University.
Keyword六朝= Six Dynasties; 佛教=Buddhism; 梁武帝=Liang Wudi; 殺生戒=Precept forbidding killing; 祠祀信仰=Ritual
Abstract本文從宗教文化史的角度,觀察佛法的根本戒律「殺生戒」與六朝世教祠祀信仰-包括官方宗廟祭祀、民間祭祀的交涉情況。從「宗廟不血食」的爭議談起,來看祭饗的轉變如何牽動著其所隱喻之教義體系解讀上的轉化。由此發現這當中也與佛教自身在中土經歷抑小揚大的過程相互表裡。亦即作為一個歷史現象,「殺生戒」在六朝時期儼然已發展出「究竟慈悲」的積極菩薩行,此並未普遍出現在任一時地的佛教,卻在中土思想傳統中發展成一種宗教文化上的趨勢, 當是相關改革( 斷肉、禁獵、去繒、戒革) 上綱至傳統祠祀信仰的關鍵。面對這個趨勢,除了相關文獻中歷史進程與思想義理的考察,我們也嘗試觀察佛教齋會禮懺對當時傳統祠祀信仰的「含攝」與「彌縫」作用, 如何藉由禮拜以實踐「殺生戒」所稟持最高的精神原理──大乘菩薩戒信行。此一研究所帶給吾人的啟示乃於:宗教作為一種超越時、空象限的廣度文化或精神信仰體系, 任何一重要儀式環節(如祭饗) 上的變動,往往牽動著相關教義體系(如宇宙觀或他界思考)之後設理解重新調整、構設的省思,此中或有宗致一統性原理的驅迫使然,從而攸關「小/大」、「權/ 實」之分判,這是各種宗教或傳統交涉的過程中,無法避免的問題。

This study adopts a religious and cultural history perspective to examine the interplay between the basic Buddhist precept forbidding killing and the rituals, including official temple and private rituals, associated with the mundane teachings of Six Dynasties Buddhism. By investigating a dispute over the use of non-animal sacrifices in temples, we observe how a change in oblation practices (sacrificial offerings) influences the way religious doctrine is interpreted. We also discover that this change is connected with the historical shift from Hinayana to Mahayana in Chinese Buddhism. Historically, the precept forbidding killing in the Six Dynasties led to the development of the bodhisattva path of "ultimate compassion." This was not an occurrence common in Buddhism in different times and places; but in the soil of traditional Chinese thought, it became a trend in religious culture. It was the key to elevating reforms such as giving up meat, hunting, silk, and leather to the level of ritual. Besides investigating historical and philosophical factors in related documents, we observe how repentance rituals at Buddhist assemblies subsumed and complemented the traditional rituals of the time. The precept forbidding killing, one of the Bodhisattva precepts of Mahayana Buddhism, was practiced through these repentance rituals. Religions are cultural and spiritual belief systems that transcend time and space. A change in any important religious ritual often influences the readjustment and reconstruction of the meta-comprehension of related doctrines. This perhaps involves the principle of forced coherence in religion, and is thus related to the distinctions between Theravada and Mahayana, relative and ultimate. It is an unavoidable issue in the interplay between different religions and traditions.
Table of contents一、前論:「宗廟不血食」? ── 從梁武帝廟祠祀改革的爭議談起 62
二、大乘「殺生戒」對民間祠祀乃至原佛、道信仰的影響 67
(一)佛教度化俗神如何可能? 67
(二)從俗神歸化到佛教「殺生戒」的抑小揚大 70
(三)道經戒律中對殺生淫祀的禁戒趨勢 73
三、大乘佛教齋會禮懺對世教祠祀功能之含攝 76
(一)菩薩道「究竟慈悲」精神與傳統仁道思想的會通 77
(二)齋會禮懺形式特質對傳統祠祀信仰的涵攝與彌縫 80
四、結論 89
引用書目 90
英文摘要 93
ISSN02544466 (P); 02544466 (E)
Created date2020.11.17
Modified date2022.02.11

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