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元代禪宗清規祈禳儀式的標準化=The Standardization of Rituals in Pure Regulations Texts of the Chan School during the Yuan Dynasty
Author 李忠達 (著)=Lee, Chung-ta (au.)
Source 佛光學報=Fo Guang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Volumen.2 新6卷
Date2020.07
Pages41 - 90
Publisher佛光大學佛教研究中心
Publisher Url https://cbs.fgu.edu.tw/
Location宜蘭縣, 臺灣 [I-lan hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為東海大學中文學系助理教授
Author Affiliations: Department of Chinese Literature, Tunghai University
Keyword禪宗=Chan Buddhism; 清規=Pure Regulations; 標準化=standardization; 祈禳=ritual; 儀式=observance
Abstract禪宗清規和其中的儀式在元代時經歷一段「標準化」的歷程,標誌著禪宗寺院組織與祈禳儀式的統一化和規範化,以及國家權力對禪宗儀式實踐的直接介入。禪宗的案例顯示出,儀式的標準化固然受到國家的推動,儀式的規制仍然建立在數百年的傳統累積上,無法由國家憑空創造。不過,對皇帝誕日的慶祝,以及地方水旱災疫的祈禳活動,仍然溢出了禪宗的舊規祖制,成為宗教與政治協作的結果。本文比對元代編纂的數種清規,考察其與宋代清規的差異,以說明禪宗儀式標準化的歷史和具體的儀式流程。其次,再藉由分析元代禪僧寫作的榜文和疏文,說明標準化儀式結構中細部文本的差異,以及現實中的實踐情形。藉此,本文希望能重新反省元代在禪宗歷史上的重要意義,以及儀式標準化對禪宗日後數百年發展的深遠影響。

The standardization of the Chan school Pure Regulations texts and of the rituals described within them is emblematic of the standardization of both the institutional structure of Chan monasteries and their rituals. It is also emblematic of the direct intervention by the state in the ritual practice of Chan Buddhism. From this example with the Chan tradition, we can see that although the standardization of rituals was encouraged by the state, the state could not easily create new rituals. Instead, rituals had to follow traditions that had been established centuries previously. Nonetheless, celebration of the emperor's birthday, as well as rites for rain, rites against floods, droughts, epidemics and other natural disasters have been appended to Chan's ancient traditions, as products of cooperation between religion and politics. By comparing several Pure Regulations texts compiled in the Yuan dynasty with those of the Song dynasty, the present article provides an account of the history of the standardization of Chan rituals and describes some of the specific ritual procedures. In addition, it uses ritual announcements and ritual prefaces written by Yuan dynasty Chan monks to describe minor differences found in the structures of the standardized rituals and to ascertain how the rituals were actually practiced. From this, this article hopes to reconsider the importance of the Yuan dynasty in Chan history and reevaluate the influence of the standardization of Chan rituals upon developments occurring over the centuries that followed.
Table of contents一、前言:標準化理論與禪宗儀式研究 44
二、元代禪宗清規體例的標準化 49
三、聖節與祈禳儀式的標準化 62
四、榜文及疏文:標準化結構下的細部文本 75
五、結語 85
引用書目 87
ISSN24143006 (P)
Hits68
Created date2020.11.26
Modified date2020.12.17



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