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대승불교사상과 사회참여 一考=A Study on Mahāyāna Buddhist Thought and Social Engagement
Author 박경준 (著)=Park, Kyoung-joon (au.)
Source 불교학연구=Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
Volumev.24
Date2009.12
Pages107 - 146
Publisher불교학연구회=佛教學研究會
Publisher Url http://www.kabs.re.kr/
LocationDaegu, South Korea [大邱, 韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language韓文=Korean
Keyword대승불교=Mahāyana Buddhism; 종교적; 생명력; 참여불교; 화현 사상; 眞俗不二; 사회윤리=Social ethics; Engaged Buddhism; Social engagement; living religion; Social practice
Abstract
대승불교는 불교 본연의 종교적 생명력을 회복하여 사회대중과 소통하며, 그들을 고통과 미혹에서 구제하려는 적극적 실천불교 내지 참여불교의 성격을 지닌다. 대승불교는 무엇보다도 생사와 열반을 분별하지 않고 眞諦와 俗諦를 원융하게 보아, 현실세계를 인정하고 따뜻하게 포용한다. 또한 대승불교의 化現(incarnation) 사상에 따르면, 여러 붓다와 보살들은 이미 깨달았지만 중생을 구제하기 위하여 여러 가지 모양으로 변화하여 이 세상에 화현한다. 따라서 이 화현 사상을 통해 볼 때 불보살에게 깨달음을 향한 개인적 수행은 곧 중생구제의 실현과 마찬가지다. 이러한 眞俗不二와 化現思想은 대승불교의 사회참여 내지 사회적 실천의 사상적 근거가 된다. 또한 『大般涅槃經』의 한 가르침에 따르면, 사람들의 苦와 樂은 자신들이 지은 전생의 근본업 때문만이 아니라 四大, 時節, 土地, 人民 등 네 가지(변수의) 영향을 받는다. 이 가르침은 일종의 사회윤리를 강조하는 것으로 우리는 공동의 행위와 노력을 통해 사회적· 자연적 고통과 재난을 극복해 가야 한다는 것을 말해 준다. 대승불교의 적극적이고도 구체적인 실천의 이념은 6바라밀의 실천덕목은 물론 아미타불의 48원, 약사여래의 12대원, 보현보살의 10대원, 승만부인의 10대원 등에 두루 나타난다. 대승의 보살은 수도생활과 일상생활을 분리시켜 보지 않는다. 보살은 현실을 떠나지 않고 현실의 한복판에서 대승의 이상을 실현하는 것이다. 오늘의 불교인은 이러한 대승의 자비정신을 통해 인류가 당면한 양극화와 생태환경 등의 심각한 위기를 극복하도록 공동의 노력을 기울여 가야 한다.


Mahāyāna means the ‘Great Vehicle’, which has the great teaching of conveying all others as well as oneself from this shore of suffering and death to the other shore of comfort and life. The Mahāyāna Buddhism originated to overcome the Abhidharma Buddhism that was excessively immersed in pedantic interpretations of Buddhist teachings and failed to communicate with people as a ‘living religion’.
On that ground, Mahāyāna Buddhism lays emphasis on the perfecting of self for perfecting others as well as the attainmentof Enlightenment. It restores the religious vitality of Buddhism in itself, and sympathizes with people in society while it plays an active role of practice and Engaged Buddhism to save them from sufferings and delusions.
Mahāyāna Buddhism takes in reality as it stands, not separating nirvāna from life and death, and conceiving of oneness with the ultimate truth and the relative truth. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, many Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are incarnated in the phenomenal world to save suffering sentient beings. The Non-dualism of the two Truths and Incarnation are ideological bases for social practice and social engagement in Mahāyāna Buddhism. In the Mahāparinirvāna Sūtra , a person’ s suffering and pleasure are influenced by four variables-the four primary elements of earth, water, fire, or wind; the time of the year; the land; the people-as well as karma, the consequences of all one’s actions from former lives. As a kind of social ethics, this teaching tells us to overcome social difficulties or natural disasters through collective actions and efforts.
It is the time for Buddhists with the spirit of Mahāyāna to give affectionate attention and help to people in suffering. Furthermore, we should make collective social endeavor to change the organizational contradictions of significant reproducing conflicts and discontents in the present policy, society and economy.
Mahāyāna means the ‘Great Vehicle’, which has the great teaching of conveying all others as well as oneself from this shore of suffering and death to the other shore of comfort and life. The Mahāyāna Buddhism originated to overcome the Abhidharma Buddhism that was excessively immersed in pedantic interpretations of Buddhist teachings and failed to communicate with people as a ‘living religion’.
On that ground, Mahāyāna Buddhism lays emphasis on the perfecting of self for perfecting others as well as the attainmentof Enlightenment. It restores the religious vitality of Buddhism in itself, and sympathizes with people in society while it plays an active role of practice and Engaged Buddhism to save them from sufferings and delusions.
Mahāyāna Buddhism takes in reality as it stands, not separating nirvāna from life and death, and conceiving of oneness with the ultimate truth and the relative truth. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, many Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are incarnated in the phenomenal world to save suffering sentient beings. The Non-dualism of the two Truths and Incarnation are ideological bases for social practice and social engagement in Mahāyāna Buddhism. In the Mahāparinirvāna Sūtra, a person’s suffering and pleasure ar
Table of contentsI. 머리말 110
II. 깨달음의 사회화 112
III.대승불교의 기본 성격 116
1. 대승불교의 흥기 배경 116
2. 대승의 기본 성격 118
IV. 사회참여의 대승사상적 근거 120
1. 眞俗不二: 生死卽涅槃 120
2. 化現 124
3. 『열반경』의 業說과 사회윤리 127
V. 대승보살의 사화참여 131
1. 보살의 길 131
2. 오늘의 위기와 사회참여 136
VI. 맺음말 139
ISSN15980642 (P)
Hits3
Created date2021.05.13
Modified date2021.05.13



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