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The Role and Significance of Zhi gnas dpe ris=시내뻬리(Zhi gnas dpe ris)의 역할과 중요성
Author 차상엽 (著)=Cha, Sang-yeob (au.)
Source 불교학연구=Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
Pages217 - 240
Publisher Url
LocationDaegu, South Korea [大邱, 韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
KeywordZhi gnas dpe ris; 샤마타도; 牧牛圖=十牛圖=Ten Ox-herding Pictures; 구종심주=九種心住=the nine stages of mental abiding=sems gnas dgu navākārā cittasthitiḥ; 성문지=Śrāvakabhūmi=Nyan thos kyi sa=聲聞地; 까말라씰라(蓮華戒)의 수습차제(Bhāvanākrama); 쫑카빠(Tsong kha pa)의 람림첸모(Lam rim chen mo)=Tsong kha pa's Lam rim chen mo; 파봉카 린뽀체(Pha bong kha rin po che)의 남돌락짱(rNam sgrol lag bcangs)=Pha bong kha’s rNam sgrol lag bcangs; the śamatha illustration
AbstractMost meditative systems of Buddhism are represented as ‘calm abiding’ (zhi gnas, śamatha, zhǐ 止) and ‘insight’ (lhag mthong, vipaśyanā, guān 觀). In Tibetan Buddhism, śamatha meditation practices are, in particular, illustrated by a painting known as Zhi gnas dpe ris, which introduces meditators to the theory and practice of meditation. Zhi gnas dpe ris symbolizes the progression of śamatha meditation stages, and does so in a series of pictures showing a monk taming an elephant and a monkey. The Tibetan Zhi gnas dpe ris is somewhat similar to the well-known ten Ox-Herding Pictures (Shíniú tú 十牛圖) of East Asian Buddhism. The Ten Ox-Herding Pictures that originated from China may have been an influence for the Tibetan Zhi gnas dpe ris. However, the Zhi gnas dpe ris differs from the Ten Ox-Herding pictures, because the latter illustrate not only the stages of śamatha meditation practice but also the stages of enlightenment, including both śamatha and vipaśyanā.
Concerning the doctrinal background of Zhi gnas dpe ris, the motif is connected with ‘the nine stages of mental abiding’ (sems gnas dgu, navākārā cittasthitiḥ, jiǔzhǒng xīnzhù 九種心住), i.e., consecutive methods for settling the mind in meditation. In Indian Buddhist literature, the earliest textual source for the explanation of the nine stages of mental abiding is the Śrāvakabhūmi (Nyan thos kyi sa, Shēngwén dì 聲聞地) from within theYogācārabhūmi (Rnal 'byor spyod pa'i sa, Yúqié shī dì lùn 瑜伽師地論). The Śrāvakabhūmi was instrumental for the implementation of the Indian meditative tradition, and became very influential for the Yogācāra literature, such as the explanations on śamatha found in the Madhyāntavibhāgabhāṣya (Zhōngbiān fēnbié lùn 中邊分別論) and Kamalaśīla’s Bhāvanākrama (Sgom pa'i rim pa, Xiūxí cìdì 修習次第). In Tibetan literature, these Indian sources and their doctrines were adopted in many indigenous works on meditation, such as Tsong kha pa’s Lam rim chen mo.
In spite of the fact that the meditation explanations of the nine stages of mental abiding that lie behind the Zhi gnas dpe ri painting as well as the fact that the Zhi gnas dpe ris is a quite well-known motif, the current situation is that extremely little is known about the history of this painting. Modern Japanese scholars have written some articles about the motif, all written in Japanese. In 1958, Yuichi Kajiyama (梶山雄一) wrote a brief article about a Tibetan version of the Zhi gnas dpe ris. Other Japanese publications on this topic include short articles by Tsultrim Kelsang (1991), Katsumi Mimaki (御牧克己)(1996, 2000), and Masaaki Nonin (能仁正顯)(2005). Using a comparative approach, the French scholar Catherine Despeux has published a monograph (1981) on the Ten Ox-Herding Pictures of Zen Buddhism, the Horse-Taming Pictures of Chinese Daoism, and the elephant-taming Zhi gnas dpe ris of Tibetan Buddhism. However, a full assessment of the significance of the Zhi gnas dpe ris for Tibetan Buddhism has hitherto not been attempted. I shall in this paper present some examples of Zhi gnas dpe ris paintings, contextualize them, present their connection with the teachings on the nine stages of mental abiding, and discuss the significance of the symbolism of the elephant, the monkey, and the rabbit, showing how these animals are related to the history and meaning of the paintings.

불교의 명상체계는 ‘고요한 머무름’이라는 의미의 샤마타(śamatha, 止)와 ‘통찰’이라는 의미의 비빠샤나(vipaśyanā, 觀)라는 두 가지 범주를 통해 제시된다. 티벳불교에서 샤마타 명상은 특히 ‘샤마타도(Zhi gnas dpe ris)’로 알려진 그림으로 예시되며, 이 도상을 통해 불교명상의 이론과 실수가 수행자에게 소개된다. 샤마타도(圖)는 샤마타 명상 단계의 점진적인 진전을 상징화하고 있으며, 코끼리와 원숭이와 토끼를 길들이는 승려를 묘사한 일련의 그림이다.
샤마타도의 교리적인 배경에 관한 한, 그 주제는 아홉 가지 마음의 머무름(九種心住), 즉 명상 중에 마음을 머물게 하기 위한 연속적인 방법과 연관이 있다. 인도불교문헌 내에서 구종심주에 관한 설명과 관련한 가장 최고기의 원전은 『聲聞地(Śrāvakabhūmi)』이다. 『聲聞地』는 인도의 명상 전통을 완성하는데 중요한 역할을 하였으며, 『中邊分別論(Madhyāntavibhāgabhāṣya)』과 까말라씰라(Kamalaśīla)의 『修習次第(Bhāvanākrama)』에서 발견되는 샤마타에 대한 설명과 같이 유가행파 문헌에 많은 영향력을 미쳤다. 이러한 인도원전과 그 가르침은 티벳문헌 중 쫑카빠(Tsong kha pa)의 『보리도차제대론(Lam rim chen mo)』과 같은 명상
Table of contentsI. Introduction 219
II. A History of Research on the Zhi gnas dpe ris 220
III. The Iconographic Meaning of the Zhi gnas dpe ris 224
ISSN15980642 (P)
Created date2021.06.15
Modified date2021.06.15

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