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奈良時代の写経=Sutra copying in the Nara period
Author 宮崎健司 (著)=미야자키 켄지 (au.)
Source 불교학리뷰=Critical review for Buddhist studies =仏教学レビュー
Pages9 - 46
Publisher Url
LocationKorea [韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note저자정보: 오타니 대학 소속
Keyword나라시대 사경=奈良朝写経=Narachō syakyō=the hand-copied sutras in Nara Dynasty; 신라사경=新羅写経=Shilla syakyō=the hand-copied sutras in Silla; 사경=写経=Syakyō=Hand-copied sutras; 감경=勘経=Kankyō=Collation of hand-copied sutras; 일체경=一切経=Tripitaka; 오월일일경=五月一日経=Gogatsu tsuitachi kyō; 경운일체경=景雲一切経=Keiun issaikyō; 개원석교록=開元釈教録=Kaiyuan-shijiao-lu; 판비량론=判比量論=Pan-biliang-lun; 정창원문서=正倉院文書=Shōsōin monjyo; 성무천황=聖武天皇=Emperor Shōmu; 광명자=光明子=Kōmyōshi; 효겸천황=孝謙天皇=Empress Kōken; 현방=玄昉=Genbō; 심상=審祥=Shinjyō; 사경소=写経所=Syakyōjyo=the institution of hand-copied sutras; 동대사=東大寺=Tōdaiji temple
AbstractThe importation of Buddhist scripture into Japan began in around the 6th century. The set of sutras known as the Issaikyō was chanted in 651 and copied in 673. The oldest extant copy of this collection of sutras is of 686 and the oldest confirmed example is the text of 734 which was made according to the wishes of Shōmu Tennō.
During the Nara period (710-784), over twenty sets of the Issaikyō collection were copied. The constant flow of Buddhist scripture into Japan is the background to this activity. The copies made under the Ritsuryō state were mostly done so under the auspices of the Empress’s Palace (kōgō gū shiki) and of the Imperial Palace (dairi). The collection requested by Kōmyōshi known as Gogatsu tsuitachi kyō was produced in the former, and in the latter, that by Kōken Tennō (known as the Keiun Issaikyō.) The sets are representative of Nara period copies of the collection. Designated “Chokutei Issaikyō” (the “definitive imperial Issaikyō”) by the Ritsuryō state, they subsequently became model texts.
Regarding the composition and content of the collection, some specific characteristics are of note. While it was based on the Kaigen shakkyō roku, it also included besshōkyō (extracts from larger sutra collections), gigikyō (apocryphal sutras), mokurokugaikyō (sutras not in the catalogues) and shōsho (commentaries). This peculiarity reflects the fact that not only that the entirety of the Kaigen shakkyō roku was not available in Japan, and belies the state of Japan’s sutra collection at that time, but also indicates that there were some limits concerned with the intake and acceptance of the sutras to Japan.
In order to supplement the gaps in the collection, the importation of texts by monks from Tang China was actively encouraged. The state’s Chokutei Issaikyō is testament to these efforts.
On the other hand, there exists a sharp distinction between state ordered copies of sutras and sutras copied privately in response to personal requests.
Many of the copies that fall into the latter category can be further divided into those made for the centrally based nobility, the central lower level bureaucracy, and for wealthy provincial clans. For the former were copied the Issaikyō collection and scriptures concerned with protection of the realm (gokoku butten), and these were copied and devoted for salvation of the imperial house and of all sentient beings. They display a strong “state” character. The latter comprised a variety of content and many were copied as a form of ancestor worship and reflect thaumaturgical beliefs.
As a summary of the sutra scriptorium, the Zōtōdaijishi shakyōsho scriptorium may be taken as an example. Those employed there were administrators such as the bettō and anzū, and specialists such as the sutra instructor (kyōshi), proofreader (kōsei), and decorator (sōō), along with those who worked under them. The specialists were mostly temporary employees and they did sutra copying related work while living in boarding houses.
The process of sutra copying was as follows. A request for copy would be received and the scriptorium would assemble an estimate of necessary materials for the job. Once accepted, the next step was the appointment of the workers and the selection of copybook along with the manufacture of paper for the copy. Once this preparation was complete, the sutra instructor would copy the sutra. Next, the proofreader would make any necessary corrections. The process was completed with the decorator’s tasks.
The fee for sutra copying was high but if a character had been copied incorrectly or omitted the punishment would often be a monetary one. It was under such a harsh system, which also involved qualifying exams, that the extant Narachō shakyō was produced. Written requests for time off and for loans also provide an insight into the lives of the scribes.
The origins of the Narachō shakyō are diverse. It was used later as a copybook for extant transcripts and printed
Table of contentsはじめに 12
I 一切経とその特質 13
II. 奈良時代の個別写経 -- 私願経を中心に 25
III. 写経組織と作業工程 30
おわりに -- 奈良朝写経と新羅写経 36

ISSN19752660 (P)
Created date2021.08.04
Modified date2021.08.13

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