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中國早期佛教體用及理概念的演變 -- 以僧肇和道生爲中心=The Evolution of 'Body-function(體用)' and 'Li(理)' Concept in Early Chinese Buddhism -- Focus on Seng Zhao(僧肇) and Dao Sheng(道生)'s Theory
Author 河由真 (著)=Ha, Eu-gene (au.)
Source 한국불교학=韓國佛教學
Volumev.50 n.0
Pages179 - 200
Publisher Url
LocationKorea [韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note著者所屬:中國, 北京大學 哲學系 中國哲學專業 博士生
Keyword체용=體用=Body(體) and Function(用); 리=理=Li; 승조=僧肇=Seng Zhao; 도생=道生=Dao Sheng; 불성=佛性=Buddha nature; Origin(本) and Function(用)
Abstract體用과 理 개념은 중국불교사 뿐만 아니라 중국철학사 전반에 걸쳐 가장 중요한 범주 가운데 하나라고 볼 수 있다. 용어의 연원은 모두 先秦시대로 거슬러 올라가는데, 본격적인 논의의 시작은 魏晋시대이며, 體用과 理 개념에 대한 비교적 상세한 논의는 晋宋年間의 불교학자들인 僧肇와 道生이 그 시초라고 할 수 있다. 즉, 용어의 연원은 중국 전통철학에서 유래하되, 그 내용적인 논의는 불교사상 내에서 이루어진 것이다. 僧肇의 경우, 龍樹의 中觀思想을 계승한 鳩摩羅什의 영향을 받아 般若思想의 眞俗二諦說을 설명하는 도구로서 體用 개념을 활용한 측면이 강하다. 반면 道生의 경우, 老莊思想에서 유래한 魏晋玄學의 本體論적 전통을 일정 부분 계승하여 理 범주를 불교의 최고진리 개념으로 격상시킨다. 또한 僧肇의 사상은 體用相卽의 논리로 일관된 반면, 道生은 여기에 涅槃經의 佛性思想을 도입하여 최고진리인 理와 그 理를 인식하고 체득하는 주체, 즉 成佛의 주체인 佛性과의 因果적 연관성을 모색한다. 이들 개념은 후대에 이르러 더욱 그 중요성이 부각되었는데, 특히 禪宗과 華嚴宗 및 宋明理學 등에서 자신들의 사상체계를 설명하는 데 적극 활용되었다.

Seng Zhao(僧肇) and Dao Sheng(道生) both share the body-function(體用) logic in their thinking mode. Dao Sheng's theory of body(體) and function(用), however, is actually more compatible with Wang Bi(王弼)’s theory of origin(本) and function(用), and differs from that of Seng Zhao. The body(體) of Dao Sheng, as the origin(本) of Wang Bi, means the original state before things obtain their existence in reality, while function(用) means the state things already in existence, which relates to extensity that things acquire when they come into human’s cognition. Therefore, Seng Zhao’s theory of body and function(體用) emphasizes their non-duality(相卽), and is meaningful in logical structure of thought on the other hand, the successive relationship of body(體) and function(用) of Dao Sheng bears significance in real space. Besides, the body-function(體用) logic of Seng Zhao can be completely applied to a series of relative concepts, such as upāya(convenient-means, 方便)and trueness(眞實), rūpakāya(form body, 色身)and dharmakāya(truth body, 法身), dirty land(穢土) and pure land(淨土), etc,. Contrarily, Dao Sheng considered function(用) as a process of returning back to the origin(本), and all sentient beings as active subjects of this process, hence sentient beings are subjects striving for buddhahoods. This methodology is consistent with his ontology of body(體) and function(用). Compared with the idea-orientation of Seng Zhao as a Mādhyamaka(中觀) philosopher, it prominently indicates the
practicalness and realness of Dao Sheng, who inherits the practical tradition of dhyāna(禪觀).
Li(理) was a very important category in Chinese traditional thoughts including Chinese Buddhism. Dao Sheng, in his thought, communicated the li(理) concept with one’s mind and human nature, and regarded it as an equivalent to Buddhata(Buddha nature, 佛性), therefore opening up a new way for one to become Buddha and exploring a new world of Buddhahood.
Table of contentsⅠ. 引論 181
Ⅱ. 體用槪念的演變 182
1. 僧肇的體用概念 182
2. 竺道生的體用槪念 186
Ⅲ. 理概念的演變 189
1. 道生以前的理 189
2. 道生的理 193
Ⅳ. 結語 196
ISSN12250945 (P)
Created date2021.11.23
Modified date2021.11.24

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