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남아시아불교와 Gender: 율장의 아난다와 고따미 에피소드를 통해본 초기인도불교의 비구니교단=South Asian Buddhism and Gender: The rise and fall of the Indian female Buddhist Sangha from the episode of Ānanda and Gotamī seen in the Vinaya texts
Author 황순일 (著)=Hwang, Soon-il (au.)
Source 한국불교학=韓國佛教學
Volumev.48 n.0
Pages103 - 124
Publisher Url
LocationKorea [韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note저자정보: 동국대 인도철학과 교수
Keyword마하빠자빠띠 고따미=MahāPajāpatī Gotamī; 아난다=Ānanda; 여덟가지 중요한 법칙=garudhammā; 비구니교단=female buddhist sangha; 율장=Vinaya; 제1결집; Buddhist Council
Abstract남아시아불교에서 젠더의 문제는 지금은 남아시아불교에서 사라지고 없는 비구니교단의 흥망을 중심으로 연구되어 왔다. 초기경전을 중심으로 보았을 때 초기 비구니교단과 관련된 가장 중요한 일은 붓다의 양모인 마하빠자빠띠 고따미가 여인의 출가를 허락해 줄 것을 요청했지만 몇 차례에 걸쳐서 거부되었던 사건이라고 할 수 있다. 물론 아난다의 개입에 의해 여인의 출가가 여덟가지 중요한 법칙(garudhamm)을 조건으로 허가되지만, 전후사정을 고려해 보면 이러한 설명에는 많은 의문점들이 남아있다. 또한 붓다의 열반직후 라자그리하(Rjagha)에서 있었던 제1결집에서 여인의 출가와 관련된 아난다의 죄를 기술한 내용들이 각각의 율장 판본들과 초기 문헌들에서 상당히 미묘한 차이를 보이고 있는 점에도 주목해야 한다. 여기에서는 이러한 문제점들과 차이점들을 분석하고 이를 통해 인도불교에서 비구니교단이 가졌던 위상을 역사적인 관점에서 검토해 보려고 한다.

Within the field of Buddhist Studies, the issues on gender have been dealt with in accordance with the rise and fall of the female Buddhist Sangha. For the establishment of the female Buddhist Sangha, there are two of the most important events recorded in the early Buddhist materials: the Buddha’s refusal to MahāPajāpatī Gotamī’s request to be part of the Buddhist Sangha and the public condemnation of Ānanda’s fault just before the first Buddhist council at Rājagṛha. According to the Vinaya, the Buddha was finally persuaded by Ānanda and was granted women to go forth from home to homelessness on condition of the eight special rules(garudhammā). Although this story sounds like plausible, there are many problems to accept it as a historical fact. As noticed by scholars, there is a huge gap in age between MahāPajāpatī Gotamī, the Buddha’s aunt, and Ānanda, the Buddha’s nephew. It is almost impossible for Ānanda to be the Buddha’s chamberlain at the time when MahāPajāpatī Gotamī met the Buddha on the issue of the female Buddhist Sangha. Among the early Vinaya and the canonical texts preserved in the Pali and Chinese languages, there were diverse excuses and interpretations in the answer of Ānanda when he was openly condemned at the first Buddhist council at Rājagṛha. In this work, I will dealing with these problems and discrepancies to show possible picture of the Indian female Buddhist Sangha by clarifying their backgrounds in relation to the changes in the framework of Indian society, by analysing the structure of the related episodes, and by comparing the diverse Ānanda’s answers appeared in the different versions of the Vinaya.
Table of contentsⅠ. 서언 105
Ⅱ. 율장에 나타난 아난다와 고따미의 에피소드 107
Ⅲ. 마하빠자빠띠 고따미 에피소드의 문제점 109
Ⅳ. 아난다의 죄에 대한 다양한 설명 113
Ⅴ. 결어: 인도 비구니교단의 위상 116
ISSN12250945 (P)
Created date2021.11.30
Modified date2021.11.30

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