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티벳불교에 나타난 구종심주의 수행체계와 전개 양상 -- 쫑카빠(Tsong kha pa)의 『보리도차제대론』(Lam rim chen mo)을 중심으로 =The Formation on the Notion of the nine stages of mental abiding (navākāracittasthiti) and its Tibetan Reception: focused on Lam rim chen mo by Tsong kha pa
Author 차상엽 (著)=Cha, Sang-yeob (au.)
Source 불교연구=佛教研究=Bulgyo-Yongu
Volumev.30 n.0
Date2009.02.27
Pages84 - 120
Publisher韓國佛教研究院
Publisher Url http://kibs.or.kr/xe/
LocationKorea [韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language韓文=Korean
Note저자정보: 금강대학교 불교문화연구소 HK연구교수
Keyword쫑카빠=Tsong kha pa; 『보리도차제대론』=菩提道次第大論=Lam rim chen mo; 구종심주=九種心住; 육종력=六種力; 사종작의=四種作意; 샤마타=止=śamatha; 락솔빠=Lag sor pa or Phyag sor pa; 옌뗀닥=[Sha ra ba or Shar ba pa] Yon tan grags
Abstract쫑카빠는 『보리도차제대론』에서 샤마타의 수행체계로 구종심주 및 여섯 가지 힘(六種力), 그리고 네 가지 정신집중(四種作意)을 중요한 골격으로 삼고 있으며, 논자는 그것들의 정의와 상호 연관성에 대해 살펴보았다.
쫑카빠가 언급하고 있는 구종심주의 명칭은 까말라씰라의『수습차제Ⅰ』 티벳역에 의거하고 있으며, 또한 구종심주의 경전적 전거로는 『반야바라밀다경』을 일컫고 있다. 그리고 쫑카빠 당시에 『현양성교론』이 티벳에 전래되지 않았을 가능성이 높다는 사실을 지적하였다. 또한 쫑카빠가 샤마타의 수행체계를 설명할 때 단순히 『수습차제Ⅰ』의 내용을 답습하고 있는 것이 아니라, 11세기 까담빠 학승인 게셰 락솔빠와 옌뗀닥의 가르침에 입각하고 있으며, 특히 옌뗀닥의 인용 전거들을 쫑카빠가 동일하게 제시하고 있다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 쫑카빠는 세간도(世間道)와 출세간도(出世間道)의 통합을 추구하고 있는 『성문지』의 수행체계를 그대로 수용하고 있는 것이 아니라, 세간도를 평가절하하고 출세간도를 명확하게 제시하는 것을 통해서 관찰 수행의 중요성을 일목요연하게 제시하고 있다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. 또한 비빠샤나의 전제가 되는 샤마타 수행체계에서 가장 수승한 인식대상은 여래의 신체라고 쫑카빠는 언급하고 있다. 사정려(四靜慮)와 신통을 강조하고 있는 『대승장엄경론』 제14장 「교수교계품」과 사정려와 사무색정(四無色定)에 대한 긍정적 내용을 언급하고 있는 『수습차제Ⅰ』의 내용과 달리, 대승 초기 『반주삼매경』의 전통에 의거해서 천안통과 천이통 등 신통을 통해 교법을 듣는다거나 여래의 세계로 들어갈 수 있는 것은 아니라고 쫑카빠는 언급하고 있다.


The doctrinal system of śamatha(止, zhi gnas) in Lam rim chen mo(菩提道次第大論), written by Tsong kha pa, consists mainly of the ‘nine stages of mental abiding’(九種心住, sems gnas dgu), the ‘six forces’(六種力, stobs drug) and the ’four attentions'(四種作意, yid byed bzhi) etc. Through an methodological approach of making comparison between Lam rim chen mo and sources referred in the said book, this paper examined the mutual links of these three component parts of śamatha. Based on tibetan version of Kamalaśīla’s First Stages of Meditatiion(修習次第Ⅰ, sgom pa’i rim paⅠ), Tsong kha pa set forth the essential points of the nine stages of mental abiding and refers to The Perfection of Wisdom Sūtras(般若波羅蜜多經, prajñāpāra- mitāsūtra), as its reference. With observing some pro- blems fallen to notice in existed arguments such as ones of YOSHIMICHI Hujita(藤田 祥道) and Peter Skilling etc., this paper indicated some supplementary points as below: first, the fact that Acclamation of the Holy Teaching(顯揚聖敎論) is apt to be not transmitted to Tibet during Tsong kha pa’s lifetime. Second, in explanations of the doctrinal system of śamatha, Tsong kha pa did not simply follow the doctrine of Kamalaśīla’s First Stages of Meditatiion but was based on teachings of two learned buddhist monks, Lag sor pa and Yon tan grags, of bKa’ gdams pa in the 11th century. Especially of these, the references quoted by Yon tan grags was being showd equally by Tsong kha pa. Third, Tsong kha pa points out the importance of vipaśyanā(觀, lhag mthong) by dint of manifesting the Supramundane(出世間道) and concurrently of devaluating the Mundane(世間道). In brief, He did not choose to accept the doctrinal system of Śrāvakabhūmi(聲聞地) as it is, the text in which the Mundane and the Supramundane are being tried to be integrated. Fourth, the most superior thing is, according to Tsong kha pa, to take the body of the Tathāgata as a object of meditation. Tsong kha pa denied that it is possible to hearing a doctrinal sermon or to entering into the world of Tathāgata, based on just the supernatural power such as divine power of vision and divine power of hearing etc. This view of Tsong kha pa is to follow a tradition of the Sūtra on the Concentrations Which Perceives the Buddha of the Present Face to Face(般舟三昧經, da ltar gyi sangs rgyas mngon sum du bzhugs pa’i ting nge ’dzin ces bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo) in early Mahayana buddhism. His doctrinal position, to conclude, is differentiated from “The preaching and the lesson”, 14th chapter of The Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras(大乘莊嚴經論, mdo sde’i rgyan), in which the Four meditations and the Supernormal cognition are being emphasized, and also from Kamalaśīla’s First Stages of Meditatiion, in which the Four meditations and the Four formless concentrations are affirmatively being valuated.

Table of contentsⅠ. 서론 85
Ⅱ. 선행 연구의 검토 및 과제 86
Ⅲ. 『보리도차제대론』에 나타난 구종심주의 체계 89
Ⅳ. 『보리도차제대론』에 나타난 구종심주의 인용 문헌 및 역사적 전개 99
Ⅴ. 『보리도차제대론』에 언급된 샤마타 수행체계와 인용 문헌들의 내용 비교 106
Ⅵ. 결론 109
ISSN12253154 (P)
Hits104
Created date2022.01.24
Modified date2022.01.24



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