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《大乘莊嚴經論》漢譯作「相」的 lakṣaṇa 和 nimitta 的研究 ──以三性說和幻喻為中心
Author 陳一標 =Chen, I-biau
Source 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
Pages5 - 62
Publisher Url
Location南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note作者單位: 佛光大學佛教學系副教授
Keyword相=xiang(lakṣaṇa, nimitta); 三性=three self-natures; 五法=five kinds of dharmas; 幻喻=illusion; 大乗莊嚴經論=MahāyānasūtrālaΥkāra
Abstract漢譯佛典中譯作「相」者,對應的梵文有 lakṣaṇa、nimitta、ākāra、liՉga 等,本論文主要依《大乘莊嚴經論》梵文本,來探索其中有關 lakṣaṇa 和 nimitta 的意義。其中,lakṣaṇa 主要的意義是「特徵」,如唯識學派說我們所應該知道的一切法的特徵是遍計所執、依他起、圓成實的三種特徵。而 nimitta 具有「相貌」與「因」義,就「相貌」義來說,nimitta 一方面作為被誤認的謬境,屬於遍計所執性,一方面也作虛妄分別中現起的影像,屬於依他起性;而就「因」義來說,它被說成是迷亂生起的因。當 nimitta 與 hetu 一起出現同樣表示「因」義時,hetu指最重要的因緣,可以理解成質料因,而 nimitta 則指增上緣,可看作是動力因。

In the Chinese Buddhist canons, the character “xiang” (相)hasmany corresponding terms in Sanskirt such as lakṣaṇa, nimitta,ākāra, and liՉga, etc. This paper will use the Sankirt version of theMahāyānasūtrālaΥkāra to investigate the meaning of the termslakṣaṇa and nimitta. To begin with, the core meaning of the term
lakṣaṇa implies “characteristic”; for example, Yogācāra schoolstates that all phenomena have three characteristics: pervasivelydiscriminated (parikalpita-lakṣaṇa), arising in dependence on
other things (paratantra-lakṣaṇa) and completely perfected(pariniṣpanna-lakṣaṇa). On the other hand, nimitta has the meaning of “mark” and “cause”. “Mark” implies misinterpreteddelusion and is “pervasively discriminated”; but nimitta also implies deluded discrimination and is “arising in dependence on other things”. And cause implies “the cause of confusion”(bhrānti-nimitta). When the terms nimitta and hetu appear togetherto signify the meaning of cause, hetu refers to the most importantcause, “the direct internal causes that produce a result (hetu-pratyaya)” and can also be understood as the “material cause”, while nimitta refers to “the causes beyond direct motivation (adhipati-pratyaya)” that can be seen as the “efficient cause”
Table of contents一、在「能相」(lakṣaṇa)、所相(lakṣya)、表相(lakṣaṇā)三者當中作為作為「特徵」義的 lakṣaṇa 10
二、作為語言所依之「相貌」的 nimitta 22
三、作為「要因」或「動力因」的 nimitta 27
四、作為遍計所執性之「相貌」的 nimitta──兼論「相」與「無相」的無差別 33
五、從顯現(pratibhāsa)與幻(māyā)喻所見的 nimitta 的兩義性 42
六、結論 55
參考文獻 58
ISSN16099575 (P)
Created date2022.02.18
Modified date2022.03.17

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