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在日本重新發現印度實在論——以基辨的《勝宗十句義論釋》為中心=Rediscovering Indian Realism in Japan: A Study of Kiben’s Commentary on the *Daśapadārthaśāstra
Author 何歡歡 (著)=He, Huan-huan (au.)
Source 2021 第八屆漢傳佛教與聖嚴思想國際學術研討會
Date2021.06.30
Publisher財團法人聖嚴教育基金會
Publisher Url https://www.shengyen.org.tw/index.aspx?lang=cht
Location臺北, 臺灣 [Taipei, Taiwan]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword基辨=Kiben; 《勝宗十句義論釋》=Kiben’s Commentary on the Daśapadārthaśāstra; 盛範=Seihan; 勝論派=Vaiśeṣika; 江戶佛教=Edo Buddhism; 印度哲學=Indian Philosophy
Abstract古印度勝論派論師惠月(慧月)所造之『勝宗十句義論』是唯一一部流傳有古代漢譯的勝論派文獻,即玄奘大師(600/602–664)於貞觀二十二年(648)在弘福寺翻經院譯出,共6000 餘字。該論無藏譯本,亦未發現梵文本;漢譯本主要闡釋了不同於勝論派根本聖典《勝論經》(Vaiśeṣika-sūtra)之「六句義」學說的「十句義」體系。雖然該論所述思想並非印度勝論派的傳統主流,卻是近現代以前之東亞社會瞭解這一種印度實在論的最主要依據。

中國古代沒有流傳下來關於《勝宗十句義論》的注釋文獻,但在隔海相望的東瀛,十八、九世紀突然出現了不少致力於研習、解讀勝論與數論之漢譯典的佛教僧人,並傳有不少撰述保留至今。這些集中出現於十八世紀後半葉的《勝宗十句義論》注釋書,連同江戶時期關於悉曇學、八囀聲與六合釋的梵文文法學,以及數論派經典《金七十論》之註疏等其他“非佛教”文獻一起,構成了濫觴於江戶、流行直至現代的日本「印度學」之熱忱潮流與豐碩成果。

在多種《勝宗十句義論》的註疏中,最具代表性的是基辨作的《勝宗十句義論釋》。該釋分上下兩卷,含《勝宗十句義論》原文在內共約四萬三千字,被中野達慧(1871–1934)收入了所編的《日本大藏經》。幸運的是,中野達慧編輯時所用的底本,即出版於安永八年(1779)的刊本,在1933 年連同其他797 冊珍貴書籍一起寄贈給了京都大學(圖書館),被歸類稱為「日藏既刊本」,現今均於“京都大學貴重資料數字檔案館”(京都大學貴重資料デジタルアーカイブ)網絡在線公開了高清圖像,為各國學者的研究提供了極大的便捷。

本文僅以京都大學在線公開的1779 年刊本《勝宗十句義論釋》之高清圖像為主要研究對象,試圖以此重要的江戶文獻為個案,考察基辨解讀外道文獻的方式與其所理解之勝論哲學的深廣程度,藉此探討江戶時期佛教學者掀起學習“非佛教”思想之熱潮的原因,並嘗試在此基礎上進一步討論,日本自十八世紀以來勃興的這一“重新發現”實在論等印度哲學的學思取向,對當時及其後的佛教學乃至更廣泛的學界與社會來說,意味著什麼?

The *Daśapadārthaśāstra translated by Xuanzang in 648, is the only Vaiśeṣika work that has been preserved in classical Chinese. So far, no Sanskrit manuscript nor Tibetan translation has been found. This text mainly explains the ten-category theory which is different from the six-category doctrine of the Vaiśeṣikasūtra. Although the idea discussed in the *Daśapadārthaśāstra is not the mainstream in India, it is the basis for East Asian to understand this kind of Indian realism before modern times.

There was no commentary on the *Daśapadārthaśāstra in ancient China, but in the eighteenth and ninth centuries in Japan, some Buddhist monks dedicated to the study of Vaiśeṣika and Sāṃkhya etc. non-Buddhist thoughts. Many of their writings even have preserved till now. Those commentaries on the *Daśapadārthaśāstra and the *Suvarṇasaptatiśāstra of Sāṃkhya, together with the study of the siddham and the sixfold analyses of compounds etc. Sanskrit grammars flourishing from the Edo period, constitute the trend of Japanese Indology until modern times.

Among the various commentaries on the *Daśapadārthaśāstra, Kiben (1718-1791)’s commentary is the most important one. It has two volumes and a total of about 43,000 words that includes the original text of the *Daśapadārthaśāstra. This work was compiled by Nakano Tatsue (1871-1934) into the Japanese Tripitaka. Fortunately, the original copy used by Nakano for editing, namely the one published in 1779, was donated to Kyoto University Library along with other 797 precious books in 1993. It is now opened on-line at the “Kyoto University Rare Materials Digital Archive”.

Basing on the high-quality images of the 1779 edition of Kiben’s Commentary on the *Daśapadārthaśāstra, this paper tries to find the way how Kiben interprets non-Buddhist thoughts, i.e. how an Edo Buddhist monk understands the Vaiśeṣika philosophy. In addition, this paper discusses the reasons why Buddhist scholars in the Edo period were keen to learn non-Buddhist Indian thoughts.
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Created date2022.06.14
Modified date2022.06.14



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