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擁抱禪悟──晚明越中地區王學的思想與佛教信仰=Embracing Zen Enlightenment: The Philosophy and Buddhist Faith of Late Ming Wang Yang-Ming School in Yue-Zhong Area
Author 李忠達 (著)=Lee, Chung-ta (au.)
Date2017
Pages302
Publisher國立臺灣大學
Publisher Url https://www.ntu.edu.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type博碩士論文=Thesis and Dissertation
Language中文=Chinese
Degreedoctor
Institution國立臺灣大學
Department中國文學研究所
Advisor鍾彩鈞
Publication year105
Keyword越中=Yue-Zhong; 陽明學=Wang Yang-Ming School; 禪宗=Zen Buddhism; 悟=enlightenment; 周汝登=Zhou Ru-Deng; 陶望齡=Tao Wang-Ling; 陶奭齡=Tao Shi-Ling
Abstract本文主旨在說明,越中地區的王學自明中葉以迄明末的發展中,逐漸接受佛教思想,並因此改變自身宗教態度和信仰活動的過程。首先,越中地區的陽明學由王陽明、王畿開創,接著由周汝登、陶望齡、陶奭齡接續。黃宗羲《明儒學案》將周、陶二人編入泰州學派,無論在師承、地域、思想上均有疑問,故本文對越中王學的歷史進行考察,以還回此一學術傳統的原貌。此外,越中地區是晚明佛教復興的重鎮,王學學者與佛教高僧頻繁交往、支持彼此活動,帶動了兼修王學和佛教的風氣。在哲學上,由於周、陶以降,越中學者持續闡發無善無惡說,使得陽明學和禪宗思想的著重點有所重疊,彼此的差異日益模糊,許多人開始相信雙方的宗旨是相同的。因此,陽明學哲學內部的發展和佛教復興的時代趨勢結合,促成一種複合式的思想系統和宗教實踐。陶望齡和陶奭齡是陽明學講會的主持者,也是篤信佛教的虔誠居士,他們的哲學思想、學佛歷程以及他們所建立的學術社群,具體呈現越中地區王學和佛教結合的時代風潮。最後,本文試圖從越中王學代表人物的佛教論述當中,考察其宗教觀念的轉變,說明當中所蘊含著的文化保守傾向與多元宗教參與的意義。

This dissertation aims to illustrate the history that Wang Yang-Ming School in Yue-Zhong area gradually accepted and then absorbed Buddhist philosophy, thereby changing its religious attitude and practice. Historically, the tradition of Wang Yang-Ming School in Yue-Zhong area was first established by Wang Yang-Ming and his disciple Wang Ji, and then it was inherited and further elaborated by Zhou Ru-Deng, Tao Wang-Ling and Tao Shi-Ling. In order to avoid the misunderstanding resulted from the problematic arrangement that Zhou and Tao brothers were placed by Huang Zong-Xi in Tai-Zhou School of Ming Ru Xue An, this study attempts to clarify the historical context of the academia in Yue-Zhong area, in which Zhou and Tao brothers played a significant role. In addition, Yue-Zhong was an area where the revival of late Ming Buddhism took place, which facilitated frequent interactions between scholars of Wang Yang-Ming School and Buddhist monks and also the practice of both Confucianism and Buddhism at the same time. Philosophically, since Zhou and Tao brothers continued to elaborate the doctrine of neither good nor evil, the focus of Wang Yang-Ming School overlapped with Zen Buddhism’s, blurring the distinction between Confucianism and Buddhism. Eventually, the evolvement of Wang Yang-Ming philosophy, therefore, made Buddhist philosophy and practice an integral part of itself. The Tao brothers, leaders of discussion gatherings in Yue-Zhong and also devoted laymen of Buddhism, whose philosophy, Buddhist faith and academic community exemplified this trend, represented the majority of scholars in Yue-Zhong area. Out of these influential figures and their discourse on Buddhism, this study attempts to reveal the transformation of religious attitude of Wang Yang-Ming School, the inclination of cultural conservatism and the meaning of multi-religious participation.
Table of contents誌謝 i
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 vii
第一章、導論 1
第二章、越中地區的陽明學發展史 23
第一節、前言 23
第二節、越中的陽明學講學活動 23
第三節、越中王學傳統在明清學術史之地位 37
第四節、越中王學近禪之批評 45
第五節、小結 58
附圖一、紹興府城圖 60
第三章、越中王學與晚明佛教之互動 61
第一節、前言 61
第二節、雲棲袾宏之影響 64
第三節、「霸禪」:紫柏真可在越中的評價 76
第四節、憨山德清與周汝登之交往 85
第五節、湛然圓澄與曹洞中興 91
第六節、密雲圓悟與臨濟復興 100
第七節、小結 105
附圖一、紹興及周邊之佛教名蹟圖 108
附圖二、清初洞宗世系表 109
附圖三、清初濟宗世系表 110
第四章、追求頓悟──王陽明到周汝登的思想變化及其與禪宗之比較 111
第一節、前言 111
第二節、無善無惡說 113
(一)良知的消極意義 114
(二)消極意義的重要性提升 116
(三)拒斥積極意義之論述 120
(四)《壇經》的「不思善,不思惡」說 125
(五)洪州禪的否定式論理 129
(六)無與有的張力 133
第三節、信心與疑情 135
(一)對反求諸心的信 135
(二)對頓悟之學的信 137
(三)與懷疑對立的信 139
(四)禪宗的信與疑情 141
(五)疑、信的相反相成 145
第四節、覺悟後的作用 149
(一)見在和自然 150
(二)平常是道或作用是性? 155
(三)通過自我否定以求更新 159
第五節、小結 160
第五章、走向禪宗──陶望齡的禪學與心學 163
第一節、前言 163
第二節、陶望齡的講學與結社活動 164
第三節、從良知學到公案禪 176
第四節、狂禪與淨土 191
第五節、陶望齡與周汝登的疑信之辨 201
第六節、小結 209
第六章、導入因果──陶奭齡及證人社的學說與果報信仰 213
第一節、前言 213
第二節、陶奭齡在越中講會的影響力 214
第三節、陶奭齡的論學宗旨 226
第四節、遷改思想與功過格 238
第五節、果報信仰 247
第七章、隨俗不遷──越中王學的宗教觀與文化意識 257
第一節、前言 257
第二節、異端就在儒門內 258
第三節、溫和的文化保守主義 270
第四節、多元的宗教參與 279
第八章、結論 289
參考文獻 294
一、中文古籍 294
二、方志 297
三、現代學術論著 298
四、期刊論文 300
五、英文著作 301
六、日文著作 302
Hits109
Created date2022.06.27
Modified date2023.01.16



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