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從「一行三昧」看蘇軾的居士形象=The Kulapati Image of Su Shi and the Ekavyūha-Samādhi
Author 蕭麗華 (著)=Hsiao, Li-hua (au.)
Source 臺大中文學報=Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature N.T.U.
Volumen.54
Date2016.09
Pages59 - 100
Publisher國立臺灣大學中國文學系
Publisher Url http://www.cl.ntu.edu.tw/riki/riki.php?CID=1
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword蘇軾=Su Shi; 居士文化=kulapati culture; 一行三昧=ekavyūha-samādhi; 文殊法門=Mañjuśrī dharma practice; 《維摩詰經》=Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra
Abstract《維摩詰經》在中國的弘傳,帶動居士文化風氣的興盛,居士文化到宋代成為高峰。文人處於世間與出世間的矛盾,如何能在維摩詰的形象中得到調
和?印順導師認為《維摩詰經》屬於「文殊師利法門」,這啟示了筆者,若從文殊法門的「一行三昧」(ekavyūha-samādhi)來檢驗居士形象,或許能看到不違背《維摩詰經》旨的居士行。
蘇軾是宋代臨濟宗黃龍派下二世東林常總禪師的法嗣,並得到雲門宗佛印了元禪師的印可。平居常著衲衣,且公然內著僧伽梨外罩「朝章」上殿,顯示一生行持「一行三昧」居士行的努力。根據本文的考察,蘇軾「一行三昧」的行持是透過華嚴與禪宗融合的般若思想之實踐而完成的。因此本文先考察「般若思想中的『一行三昧』法門」,辨認蘇軾所行的「一行三昧」特屬般若思想的觀空法門;接著,從蘇軾平生與思想,考察「蘇軾對『一行三昧』的體證」;最後,從蘇軾詩文中辯證出「蘇軾對《維摩詰經》聖俗一如的體證」。從蘇軾大量的維摩書寫中,顯示出一個盛宋時代的維摩詰居士形象,他以維摩經教體證了義,並在人間以「遊戲神通」完成最終證悟的解脫者。其詩文中對維摩意象體證得最為深刻的有二端:(一)示病維摩元不病;(二)天女散花。蘇軾實為居士行的最佳典範。

The kulapati ‘lay Buddhist’ culture was flourished by the spread of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra (also known as the Weimojiejing) and reached its peak in the Song dynasty. It is interesting how the struggle between secularity and
monasticism is solved with the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa image. Master Yin-Shun (12 March 1906 - 4 June 2005) believes that the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra belongs to the Mañjuśrī dharma practice. Inspired by this, the author examines the kulapati image
from the perspective of ekavyūha-samādhi ‘meditative consciousness of one practice’ and looks for kulapati practices that follow the purpose of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra. Su Shi (8 January 1037 - 24 August 1101) learned from Master Zhao-Jue of
the Huanglong Branch of the Linji School and received a formal confirmation from Master Fo-Yin (1032~1098) of the Yunmen School. He usually wore a patched robe and attended daily ceremonies with a saṁghāti under his court dress. This
shows his efforts and persistence in carrying out the practice of ekavyūha-samādhi. According to the investigation of this study, Su Shi’s practice of ekavyūha-samādhi was accomplished through the practice of the prajñā thoughts in Huayen Buddhism and Zen Buddhism. On this account, this study first explores the dharma practice of ekavyūha-samādhi in the prajñā thoughts and identifies that Su Shi’s practice of ekavyūha-samādhi was a part of the emptiness observation in the prajñā thoughts. It then scrutinizes Su Shi’s life and thought, reveals how he realizes ekavyūha-samādhi, and finally confirms with his poetry his realization from the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra that “the secular and the sacred are equal.” Su Shi’s writings on the
Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra show his kulapati image of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa in the Song dynasty. He realized its significance through the practice of the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa Sūtra and achieved the state of liberation with abhijñā-vikurvaṇa in the mortal world. His most profound realization of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa image is about the following two (a) “Vimalakīrtinirdeśa’s illness is gone when the secular is well” and (b) “The heavenly immortal disperses petals.” Indeed, Su Shi is the best example of kulapati practitioners.
Table of contents一、前 言 5
二、般若思想中的「一行三昧」法門 8
三、蘇軾對「一行三昧」的體證 15
四、蘇軾對《維摩詰經》聖俗一如的體證 25
(一)示病維摩元不病 28
(二)天女散花 33
五、結 論 36
引用書目 37
ISSN10132422 (P)
DOI10.6281/NTUCL.2016.09.54.02
Hits270
Created date2022.08.04
Modified date2022.08.04



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