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상가밋따(Sanghamitta)와 남방 테라와다(Theravada) 전통의 연속성=Sanghamitta and the Continuity of Theravada Buddhist Tradition
Author 황순일 (著)=Hwang, Soon-il (au.)
Source 불교학보=佛教學報
Volumev.66 n.0
Pages9 - 29
Publisher동국대학교 불교문화연구원=Institute for Buddhist Culture
Publisher Url
LocationKorea [韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note저자정보: 동국대학교(서울) 불교학부 교수
Keyword남방불교=Southern Buddhism; 비구니교단=Bhikkhuni sangha; 상가밋따=Sangamitta; 마힌다=Mahinda; 아쇼까왕; 법현; 현장=Fazian; 구법승; Xuangzang; Chinese Pilgrims
Abstract남방 테라와다(Theravada) 전통에서 비구니교단은 10세기경에 소멸된 후 복원되지 않고 있다. 하지만 남방불교 전통에는 상가밋따로 대변되는 비구니교단의 역사가 전해지고 있고 상가밋따가 전해준 보리수나무가 남방불교의 중단 없는 연속성을 상징해 주고 있다. 물론 상가밋따의 역사성은 오래전부터 의심되어 왔으며 여전히 그 역사성을 증명할 수 있는 수단은 없어 보인다. 하지만 상가밋따의 역사성을 의심하는 학자들에 의해서 꾸준히 언급되어온 현장 법현과 같은 중국 순례승들의 언급은 더 이상 과거와 같은 권위를 가지고 받아들여지지 않고 있다. 왜냐하면 이들이 언급이 기본적으로 다른 사람들에게 들은 것으로서 총체적으로는 중요한 의미를 지니지만 세세한 부분에 있어서는 많은 문제들을 일으키기 때문이다. 본 논문에서는 남방테라와다 전통의 스리랑카 역사서인 마하왐샤를 중심으로 상가밋따의 일생을 흩어져서 나타나는 이야기들을 복원하여 남방불교의 벽화들과 함께 살펴본 수 중국 순례승들의 언급을 어떻게 받아들여야 하는가를 살펴보도록 하겠다. 그리고 비록 비구니 교단은 사라졌지만 보드가야의 보리수나무 가지를 전해준 것으로서 여전히 중요하게 받아들여지는 상가밋따의 역할을 통해 남방 테라와다 전통의 중단 없는 연속성을 살펴보도록 하겠다.

Buddhist nuns are real women intellectuals in the Ancient Indic World. One of the most famous nuns in the Southern Theravāda tradition could be Saṅghamittā, a daughter of the renowned king Ashoka in Mauryan Empire in Northern India. Two very important events are related to Saṅghamittā in the Southern Buddhism: starting of the nun ordination tradition in Srilanka and transmitting a branch of the Bodhi-tree from Magadha to Srilanka. The legacy of Saṅghamittā is still celebrated in Srilanka during the full moon day of December every year known as Sanghamitta Poya.
The popular story of Saṅghamittā has been based mainly on the scattered episode appeared in the Srilankan chronicles. We can even reconstruct the entire biography of Saṅghamittā from the various part of the Mahāvaṃsa which shows the strong inference of the Mahāvihāra nikāya, one of the most traditional Orders in Srilanka. It actually represents the image of Saṅghamittā developed and preserved within the Mahāvihārins.
By contrast, Saṅghamittā was not appeared in the legend of the King Ashoka (Aśoka-avadana) developed and preserved in Northern India. Two Chinese pilgrims also talk of something different relating to Saṅghamittā. Xuanzang regards Mahendra, possibly the brother of Saṅghamittā, as a brother of King Ashoka. He also added that Mahendra stayed some time in Southern India before moving to Srilanka to propagate Buddhism entire island. Planting of the Bodhi-tree is also told differently from Faxian who lived in Srilanka for 2 years during the 4th century AD. His story could represent the perspective of the Abhayagirivihāra, one of the rival sects against the Mahāvihāra in Ancient Srilanka. Here the Bodhi-tree was transmitted and planted not with Saṅghamittā but through the direct order of a former King in Anuradhapura. In this paper, I am exploring various episode of Saṅghamittā appeared in Srilankan chronicles compared with Northern Buddhist legend as well as the records of Chinese pilgrims and am hoping to show the importance of Saṅghamittā’s legacy in the Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia.
Table of contentsI. 서언 11
II. 상가밋따(Saṅghamittā)의 생애 12
III. 상가밋따(Saṅghamittā)와 중국 순례승 18
IV. 상가밋따(Saṅghamittā)의 유산 21
V. 맺음말 24
ISSN12261386 (P)
Created date2022.09.19
Modified date2022.09.19

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