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佛敎 共業說의 사회학적 함의 -- '사회적 실천'에 대한 논의를 중심으로=The Social Connotations on the Buddhist Theory of Collective Karma -- Focusing on the Philosophical Discussion about Social Practice
Author 박경준 =Park, Kyoung-joon
Source 불교학보=佛教學報
Volumev.52 n.0
Date2009.08
Pages149 - 171
Publisher동국대학교 불교문화연구원=Institute for Buddhist Culture
Publisher Url https://abc.dongguk.edu/kbri/
LocationKorea [韓國]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language韓文=Korean
Note저자정보: 동국대학교 불교학부 교수
Keyword共業=collective karma; 器世間; 不共業; 사회적 실천=social practice; 업보윤회설; 有情世間; karma=業; samsāra=輪廻; Engaged Buddhism=參與佛敎
Abstract불교의 ‘업과 윤회'의 교리에 의하면, 인간의 행복과 불행은 신이나 숙명 또는 우연에 의해 규정되는 것이 아니라, 인간 스스로의 업에 의해 결정된다. 그리고 이 업은 일회적인 행위로 끝나 버리는 것이 아니라 잠재적인 업력을 형성하여 있다가 今生이나 來生에 그에 상응하는 과보를 나타낸다고 한다. 우리는 이러한 불교사상을 흔히 업보윤회설 또는 삼세윤회설이라고 부른다. 이처럼 업사상이 윤회사상과 결합되면서 그 윤회의 주체는 일종의 영혼과 같은 존재로 이해되게 되며, 이것은 나아가 불교의 업설을 일종의 숙명론으로 곡해하게 만든다. 이러한 잘못된 업설의 이해는 개인의 삶을 규정하는 변수를 개인의 업에 국한시킴으로써 사회관계에 대한 관심과 사회적 실천에 걸림돌이 되었다. 하지만 불교업설은 신, 숙명, 우연을 부정하며 기본적으로 인간의 자유의지에 바탕한 창조적 노력을 강조한다. 이러한 업의 이념은 有情世間은 중생의 不共業에 의해, 자연환경 및 사회환경의 器世間은 중생의 共業에 의해 이루어진다고 강조한다. 이 공업 사상의 대두와 함께 『대승열반경』에서는 인간의 운명을 규정하는 원인이 자신의 過去 本業만이 아니고 현재의 四大, 時節, 土地, 人民이라고 설파한다. 이 가르침은 도덕결정론적 사고의 문제점을 극복하며 불교 업설 이해의 새 지평을 열어주고 있다. 이러한 사상과 가르침에 의거해 볼 때, 우리의 운명을 향상시켜 가기 위해서는, 도덕적인 노력 외에도 자연현상에 대한 깊은 이해와 기술개발, 사회에 대한 관심과 실천, 시대상황에 대한 통찰과 역사의식이 모두 필요한 것이다.

Buddhism derives its origin from the Gotama Buddha who achieved vimutti and nirvāna through his Great Enlightenment. As the Buddha did, it teaches all sentient beings the ways to liberate themselves from all bondage of sufferings and illusions and to attain enlightenment through practices such as the thirty-seven prerequisites including the Noble Eightfold Path, the threefold training of sīla, samādhi and paññā, the Six Pāramitās, etc. Therefore, we might say that Buddhism is the religion of personal practice. According to the Buddhist theories of karma and samsāra, a personal happiness or unhappiness is determined not by a God, Fatalism or Fortuitism, but by his or her own deeds, karma. The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect that every action produces its effects or results. The effects of a action with potential power may continue to manifest themselves in this life or even in the future life after death, which is called the theory of samsāra (the cycle of continuity) in the three times: past, present and future. While the theories of karma and samsāra become mixed, it brings some misunderstandings of regarding the agent of rebirth as entity like Soul and even the theory of karma as Determinism. This misunderstanding of the karma theory often becomes obstacles to social interest and social practice by confining the elements of one's life to personal karma. But in the Buddhist theory of karma, it denies a God, Fatalism or Fortuitism and basically puts emphasis on human endeavor with volitional will. It also stresses that the world of sentient beings is formed of the noncollective karmas and the other side, the world of natural and social environments is formed of collective karmas of human beings and all things. In the Mahāparinirvāna Sūtra, it is said that the causes of a man's fortune depend on not only his original karma in the past, but also the four primary elements, the time of year, the land and the people in present. This theory of collective karmas solves the problem of thinking karma as moral determinism, and suggests a new understanding of Buddhist theory of karma because the nature and society are regarded as the variable elements of a man's fate. Among the diverse elements of determining our life, the influences on the natural and social environments are extremely large, and have been newly and broadly recognized in Buddhist communities recently. Most Buddhist nations in Asia and some nations in the West have the general tendency toward Engaged Buddhism for instance Human or Human Life Buddhism in Taiwan and China. In our country, as the emergency of the Laity Solidarity for Engaged Buddhism which the official title is Buddhist Solidarity for Reform (BSR), the recognition of Engaged Buddhism has been enlarged. Now the social activities of Buddhists have become categorical imperatives. Therefore, the personal and social practices are needed to be in harmony to make the Buddhist righteous life. Accordingly, the Buddhist theory of collective karmas will largely be a theoretical basis for Buddhist practical ethics.
Table of contentsI. 머리말 151
II. 業說의 통속적 이해와 그 문제점 152
III. 共業 思想의 대두 155
IV. 공업 사상과 사회적 실천 159
V. 맺음말 167
ISSN12261386 (P)
Hits1
Created date2022.10.17
Modified date2022.10.17



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