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Four Gāndhārī Saṃyuktāgama Sūtras: Senior Kharoṣṭhī Fragment 5
Author Glass, Andrew (著) ; Allon, Mark (撰稿)
VolumeNew Series
PublisherUniversity of Washington Press
Publisher Url
LocationSeattle, WA, US [西雅圖, 華盛頓州, 美國]
SeriesGandhāran Buddhist Texts
Series No.4
Content type書籍=Book
NoteAndrew Glass is the lead researcher on the Gandhari Dictionary Project and a member of the British Library/University of Washington Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project.
AbstractFour Gandhari Samyuktagama Sutras continues the study of Gandharan Buddhist texts and is the first investigation of a scroll from the Senior Collection of Kharosthi manuscripts. The Senior Collection, which is named after its owner, Robert Senior (Glastonbury, U.K.), consists of twenty-four birch bark scrolls or scroll fragments with at least forty-one Buddhist texts written in the Gandhari language and Kharosthi script. Senior scroll number 5, one of the best preserved of all Kharosthi manuscripts, contains four short sutras that give a first-hand account of meditation practice in Gandhara in the middle of the second century A.D.

The first sutra, which has no direct parallel in other Buddhist literatures, presents a description of four visualization exercises, three of which are unique to the Gandharan tradition. The second sutra is a teaching of non-self, which is also found in Pali, Chinese, and Tibetan. The third and fourth sutras, also available in Pali and Chinese, emphasize the role of meditation in progressing toward enlightenment.

This volume details the textual background of the Samyuktagama, a major collection of Buddhist scriptures arranged by topic, and places Gandhari Samyuktagama Sutras in this context. Andrew Glass compares the sutras with the parallel versions in Pali, Chinese, and Tibetan and presents a transcription and reconstruction of the text, together with an English translation. He also covers the paleography, orthography, phonology, and morphology of the text and offers a detailed analytic commentary on each sutra. Mark Allon discusses the significance of the Senior Collection to the ongoing textual studies. Appendices provide editions and translations of the parallel texts in Pali, Chinese, and Tibetan. There is also a complete word index to the Gandhari text, as well as Chinese-Gandhari and Tibetan-Gandhari indexes.
Table of contentsList of Illustrations and Tables xi
Series Editor's Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xiv
Transcription and Citation System xvii
Abbreviations xviii

Introduction: The Senior Manuscripts (by Mark Allon) 3
1. Introduction 3
2. Date of the Manuscripts 4
3. Sectarian Affiliation 5
4. Catalog of Texts 6
5. Character of the Collection 18
6. Classification of the Texts and Genres 21
7. The Identification of Themes 23

1. The Arrangements of the Connected Discourses 26
1.1. The Samyuktāgama and the Samyutta-nikāya 26
1.2. Extant Versions 27
1.2.1. Pali 27
1.2.2. Chinese 28
1.2.3. Sanskrit 29.
1.2.4. Tibetan 31
1.2.5. Gāndhārī 33
1.2.6. Other Versions 36
1.3. The Structure and Arrangement of the Connected Discourses 36
1.3.1. The Circumstances of the Translation of T no.99 38
1.3.2. The Reconstruction of T no.99 39
1.3.3. The Reconstruction of T no.101 42
1.4. Comparisons of the Arrangements of Versions of the Connected Discourses 42
1.4.1. Comparisons with the Pali Arrangement (Tables 6 and 7) 43
1.4.2. Comparisons with the Reconstructed Arrangement of T no. 99 (Tables 8 and 9) 46
1.5. Conclusions 49

2. Comparison of the Gāndhārī, Pali, Chinese, Tibetan, and Sanskrit Versions 51
2.1. General Comments 51
2.2. Detailed Comparisons 51
2.2.1. The Saña-sutra 51
2.2.2. The Ṇatuspahu-sutra 60
2.2.3. The Ṣadha-sutra 64
2.2.4. The *Vasijada-sutra 66
2.3. Relationships between the Parallel Versions 68
2.4. Conclusions 68

3. Physical Description of the Manuscript 71
3.1. Description of the Manuscript 71
3.2. Reconstruction of the Scroll (Plates 1 and 2) 72
3.2.1. Size and Format 72
3.2.2. The Reconstructed Text 74
3.3. Descriptive List of the Subfragments 76
3.3.1. Main Fragments 76
3.3.2. Small Fragments among the Main Fragments 76
3.3.3. Debris Fragments in the Main Frame (Figure 6) 79
3.3.4. Debris Frame Fragments (Figure 7) 80

4. Paleography and Orthography 85
4.1. The Writing Instrument 85
4.2. Layout of the Manuscript 86
4.3. General Features of the Hand 87
4.4. Foot Marks 88
4.5. Analysis of Individual Letters (Table 14) 91
4.5.1. Vowel Diacritics 91
4.5.2. Basic Signs 95
4.5.3. Conjunct Consonants 101
4.6. Punctuation 103
4.7. Errors and Corrections 103
4.7.1. Incidental Marks and Other Nonphonetic Traces of Ink 103
4.7.2. Omission of Vowel Diacritics 104
4.7.3. Haplography and Other Errors Involving Omitted Words and Syllables 104
4.7.4. Dittography and Other Errors Involving Inserted Syllables 104
4.7.5. Corrections 105
4.8. Paleographic Dating 105

4.9. Orthography 106
4.9.1. Distribution of the Velar Consonants k/ḵ and g/g 107
4.9.2. Distribution of the Dental Consonants t, d, and ḏ 107
4.9.3. Distribution of the Nasal Consonants ṇ and n 107
4.9.4. Distribution of the Sibilants s and s̱ 107
4.9.5. Deaspiration 108
4.9.6. Spelling Inconsistencies 108

5. Phonology 109
5.1. Vowels 109
5.1.1. Initial Vowels 110
5.1.2. Medial Vowels 110
5.1.3. Developments of Old Indo-Aryan ṛ 112
5.1.4. Reductions 113
5.1.5. Deletion of Final Vowels 113
5.2. Consonants 113
5.2.1. Single Consonants in Initial and Medial Position 113
5.2.2. Consonant Clusters 119
5.3. Metathesis 124
5.4. Contraction of Syllables Involving ya 124
5.5. Sandhi Phenomena 124
5.5.1. Vowel Hiatus 124
5.5.2. Vowel Sandhi 125
5.5.3. Original Final m Remaining before Vowels 125
5.5.4. Organic Sandhi Consonants 125

6. Morphology 126
6.1. Nominal Forms 126
6.1.1. Stems in -a, Masculine, Neuter, and Feminine 126
6.1.2. Stems in Nonoriginal -ā 129
6.1.3. Other Vocalic Stems
ISBN9780295987729 (hbc); 0295987723 (hbc)
Related reviews
  1. Book Review: Four Gāndhārī Saṃyuktāgama Sūtras: Senior Kharoṣṭhī Fragment 5 by Andrew Glass and Mark Allon / Boucher, Daniel (評論)
Created date2024.01.16
Modified date2024.01.16

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