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宋初天臺宗對「請觀音懺」的檢討=A Review of Tiantai sect's Ritual of Invoking Kwan-yin (Avalokite?vara) for Repentance in Early Sung China
著者 蔣義斌 (著)=Chiang, Yi-bin (au.)
掲載誌 法鼓佛學學報=Dharma Drum Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.3
出版年月日2008.12.01
ページ67 - 100
出版者法鼓佛教研修學院
出版サイト http://www.ddbc.edu.tw/zh/
出版地臺北縣, 臺灣 [Taipei hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード智顗=Chih-yi; 智圓=Chih-yuan; 遵式=Tsun-shih; 天臺宗=Tiantai Sect; 請觀音懺=Kwan-yin Repentance
抄録天臺宗雖以義理著稱,但又制訂懺儀,智顗創制懺儀的目的,是與止觀結合。北宋漸進入平民社會,且商品經濟逐漸發展。天臺宗人為完成其宗教關懷,對智顗所創的懺儀作了些修訂,甚至新創了些懺儀,以符合社會需要。懺儀是宋代以後中國佛教活動中,最活躍的項目之一。北宋天臺宗人,慈雲遵式修訂、創制新懺儀,是宋代山家派制定懺儀最具代表性學僧。山家派推廣懺儀,使之與世俗生活結合。遵式以行懺名聞天下,他發展懺儀,讓社會每一個階層的人,均可透過行懺,以慈悲心改善社會環境。行懺不只是僧侶的特權,一般世俗人也可參與行懺,透過結社,遵式推行符合時代需求的懺法。智圓於天臺宗則屬山外派,持戒自悔是山外派的基本立場,隱居而不參與俗務,他主張懺儀應與止觀相結合的傳統。為了加強持戒的重要,他首創禮敬道宣律師的儀式,但反對山家派推動懺儀與社會結合的作為。
「請觀音懺」在智顗的懺儀體系,是相當重要的懺儀,智顗對此懺的經典也有注疏。宋代天臺宗山外派學者智圓,亦對該經作注疏,其注疏除為闡述智顗注疏的奧旨外,另有與山家派論爭的用意。「請觀音懺」於天臺宗懺儀體系具有特殊性,宋代天臺宗人無論山家、山外派,均對觀音懺有相關的論述,因此本文擬以此懺法作為探討宋代懺儀性質改變的素材,並分析宋代懺儀改變與社會的互動。
Although the Tiantai sect was renowned for its strength in doctrinal studies, it also created a whole set of repentance rituals. Chih-yi’s purpose was to combine these repentance rituals with contemplation practices. Northern Sung gradually formed a society of commoners and a commodity economy. For the sake of accomplishing religious missions and adapting to the needs of the society, modifications of Chih-yi’s repentance rituals were made and some new repentance rituals were created. Conducting repentance rituals was one of the most frequent activities after the Sung in Chinese Buddhism. Tsun-shih was
the most important monk scholar in Sung’s Tiantai Home Mountain (Shan-Chia)
lineage because of his modification and creation of the repentance rituals. The
Home Mountain lineage propagated repentance rituals so that it became part of lay life. Tsun-shih was widely known for his practice of repentance. He advocated the practice of repentance rituals in the hope that all members of the society would show their passion for improving the societal environment by undertaking these repentance rituals. By forming societies of practitioners, Tsun-shih propagated repentance rituals that were suited to the needs of his time. Repentance rituals were not the privilege of monastic members. They were important for all members of the society. Chih-yuan belonged to Tiantai’s Off Mountain (Shan-wai) lineage. Maintaining precepts and promoting self-repentance was basic to the practices of the Off Mountain lineage. By leading the life style of a hermit, and not being involved with mundane activities, he upheld the tradition of combining repentance practice with meditative practice. In order to highlight the importance of keeping precepts, he initiated a ritual to pay tribute to the Tang precept master Tao-hsuan.
He opposed the Home Mountain lineage practice of promoting the repentance
ritual within the society. The repentance Ritual of Invoking Kwan-yin was an important ritual in Chihyi’s system. Chih-yi wrote commentaries on this text. Chih-yuan wrote commentaries on the same text as well. In Chih-yuan’s commentary, besides illustrating Chih-yi’s main points, Chih-yuan also aimed at refuting the Home Mountain lineage’s position. The Kwan-yin Repentance ritual had a special place within the Tiantai sect’s ritual repentance system. Tiantai practitioners either in the Home Mountain or Off Mountain lineage all wrote commentaries on the Kwan-yin Repentance ritual. This article uses this particular repentance ritual as a basis for discussing elemental changes in repentance rituals in the Sung. It also analyzes the relationship between
changes in repentance rituals and the Sung society.

目次一、前言 69
二、懺儀舉行場所的轉變與社會變遷 70
三、山外派對山家派行懺場所改變的再反省 75
四、呪、請與勸修 81
五、懺室、結社:道場的新空間、形式 89
六、結言 94
ISSN19968000 (P)
ヒット数1533
作成日2009.03.05
更新日期2021.01.11



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